SURVEY & ARTILLERY

NOTE: This section comprises compasses utilised for civilian purposes (geology, mining industry) and also their military versions with which fire arms can be directed - although only in a gross manner.
The following list shows only the names of all manufacturers of the compasses exhibited here who could be identified. Other exhibits still lack identification. Discover them while browsing around. For any information concerning the numerous antique U.S. makers (like J. Hanks, Rittenhouse and many others), we recommend the websites www.surveyhistory.org and also www.surveyantiques.com.
A
ABNEY Level
Aiming Circle
AINSWORTH
ALOE
Altazimuth (see Casella)
AR-1 (AP-1 in Russian)
ARSENAL Kiev / Арсенал Киев
ASKANIA
B
B-2 (Б-2 in cyrillic letters)
BAKER, C.
BARKER, F.
BERGET
BG-1 (БГ-1 in cyrillic letters)
BK-20 (буссоль круговая in cyrillic letters)
BLOCH
BRÈCHE (French Army officer)
BREITHAUPT
BROWN
BRUNSON
BRUNTON
BS-2 (БC = Буссоль Стефана)
BSh1 (БШ = Буссоль Шмалькальдера)
BTK-1 (БTK-1 in cyrillic letters)
BÜCHI
Bundeswehr
BURNIER
BUSCH

C
CARY
CASELLA
Cavalry Board (see plane table Mk IV)
CHAIX
CHARVOZ
CHINA
Clisimètre (French and Swiss level system)
COLLIGNON-HOULLIOT
COOKE
Cross staff head
CRC
C.Z. (Carl Zeiss)
cxn = Busch
D
DARLEY
DELCROIX
DESOMBRE
DIETZGEN
Dip (Needle) Compass
DQL (Chinese compasses)
DUCATILLON (equinoctial sundial)
DUPUY

E
ELLIOTT Bros.
F
FELLOWS, READ & OLCOTT
FENNEL
FPM (Freiberger
     Präzisionsmechanik)
FUESS
G
GAMBEY
GAMBS
GANSER
GEISLER (ГЕЙСЛЕРЪ in Russian)
GEO
Geolestochpribor
   Геолесточприбор
Geophysical Instrument Co.
Geophyzika / ГЕОФИЗИКА (s. UOMZ)
GeoPriborTsvetMet
   ГеоПриборЦветМет
GEOSTROYIZYSKANIYA (GSI)
   ГЕОСТРОЙИЗЫСКАНИЯ (ГCИ)
GERLACH
GK-2 (ГK = горный компас)
GOERZ
Goniometer
Goszawod / ГОСЗАВОД (see UOMZ)
GROMOV (ГРОМОВЪ in Russian)
GSI / ГCИ (see above)
GURLEY

H
HAHN
HARBIN Optical Instruments
HART
HOSSARD
HOULLIOT
HUEL
HUET
HUTCHINSON
I
IPZ / ИПЗ
Inclination: see dip needle compass
   (Инклинатор in Russian)


J
JAKLITSCH
Japan
JONES
K
KATER
K+E
K&R (Kasper & Richter)
KERN
KEUFFEL & ESSER
KONUS
KRAFT
L
LADOIS
LAGUNA
LAMB
L.A.T. - Les Accessoires Topogr.
LAVAUZELLE
LAWES RABJOHNS Ltd
LEMAIRE
Level (Fr. German & Swiss systems)
Level (Engl. system, Abney)
LEZY
LIETZ
LÜTTIG
LUTZ
M
M1 / M2 (Brunton models)
M1918
Machine gun compass (mitrailleuse in French)
Magnetometer
MANSFIELD
Map (milit., Germany, WWII)
Map & Compass (books)
Map Pocket
Map Reader
Mark IV
MashPriborIntOrg (Машприборинторг)
MEISSNER
MEOPTA
MERIDIAN
Mikhalovski - Touroff (Михаловский - Tуров in Russian)
Miners' Compass
MONTICOLO
MORIN

N
Netherlands


O
OBK (OБK in cyrillic characters)
O'GRADY HALY
OSTOYA
OULIANOFF (Meridian)
P - Q
Państwowe Zakłady Pomocy
    Szkolnych
PARKES
Pedometer
PEIGNÉ (Général)
PESSLER & Sohn (P & S)
PEST (Budapest)
PHYSICA
Plane Table (incl. Cavalry Board)
Plane Table Compass
Protractor, square
P & S = Pessler
R
Radio-compass (for broadcasting stations)
RECTA-KERN
RICHER
Richtbussole
RICHTER (Рихтеръ in Russian)
RITTENHOUSE
RODE (Роде in Russian)
Romer Scale
ROSPINI
ROSSIGNOL
ROST, R. & A
Rotameter
Russian Survey compasses: see list in SEARCH, visit also the GSI / ГСИ Museum
S
SALMOIRAGHI
SANGUET
SCHABLAß (Schablass)
SCHUBERT & VIALON
SCHMALCALDER
SCHWABE (ШВАБЕ in Russian)
SECRETAN
SHOWA SOKKI
Sitometer (French art. level) See also KERN, BÜCHI
S-L (Société des Lunetiers)
SLOM
SOUCHIER
SPENCER BROWNING & RUST
SPERLING (Шперлингъ in Russian)
SPRENGER
SRB A ŠTYS (SRB & STYS)
STANLEY
STEINHEIL
STEWARD
STOLIAROVI (Столяровы in Russian)
STOPPANI
STREET
STUDER
SUUNTO
Surveyor's compass (France cXVIII)

T
Theodolite
THOMMEN
TOPOCHAIX
TOUROFF (туров)
Trough Compass
TROUGHTON


U
UOMZ / УОМЗ
U.S. Army
U.S.G.S.


V
VEB Geophysikalischer
        Gerätebau Brieselang
VERSCHOYLE
VION
VOIGTLÄNDER
VOOMP (s. UOMZ / YOM3)
VOZ
W
WASHINGTON George
WHITE
WICHMANN
WILD
WILKIE
WINTERER
X - Y
XBK - Czechoslovakia
Germany (unidentified)
France (unidentified)
USA / UK (unidentified)
Z
ZEISS
ZIKO
ZMI (3Mu in cyrillic letters)

- A -

Aiming Circle M1

DESCRIPTION : Instrument called in French goniomètre-boussole and in German Richtkreis. French teaching manual (printed 1956) for the Saint-Maixent military highschool. Two similar instruments are described therein: a French and a U.S. system (note: the abbrev. G.B. stands here for the French designation Goniomètre-Boussole). It describes the French version of the Instrument CIRCLE, AIMING M1 (see U.S. Army user instruction TM-9-1290-357-15 online HERE). The needle is located inside the main cylindrical casing. The older markings (covered with green paint) W.P.B. 1942 F.A. stand for War Production Board / Field Artillery.
NOTE: compare to the Russian systems designed by Mikhalovski & Touroff and used in the Czar's imperial army and in the USSR's Red Army.




Click on the drawings for enlarged views

Pics. courtesy G. Gintzburger

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AINSWORTH & SONS

PROFILE - William (Wm) A. & S. was a U.S. instrument manufacturer who was first to produce the BRUNTON-type pocket transit compass (see below) and the lensatic model M-1938 (more information HERE).

ALOE

PROFILE - For information about this compass manufacturer and many others not listed here, visit the Virtual Survey Museum
(see LINKS).

AR-1 (AP-1 in Russian)

PROFILE - Russian-made compass. The two letters stand for the maker Arsenal 
Made in 19...?
Dim.: 100 x 140 x 140 mm



ARSENAL KIEV / Арсенал Киев

PROFILE - Arsenal is an old manufacturer located in Kiew (now Ukrainia) since 1764.  Survey materiel production started only in 1946.  The Arsenal icon used to feature a soviet "hammer and sickle" symbol in a prism but it was deleted later (in the 1990's ?). Typical products: see B-Sh-1 below. (see list of Russian logos here : ZENITCAMERA)
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ASKANIA

PROFILE - ASKANIA is a German manufacturer (more information HERE).
See also BAMBERG in the section AERONAUTICAL Compasses and also ASKANIA in MARCHING and WRIST compasses.



(Click for detail view of dial)
The AskAniA logo and the manufacturer's name


Technical Data
- Diameter:  4 ¾ "  / 120mm
- Divisions: 360 degrees clockwise

Period: 1921-1938
 
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- B -

B-2 (Б-2 in cyrillic letters)

PROFILE - Russian miner compass. The three letters "3Mu" are the italic version of the upper case characters ЗМИ - Завод Маркшейдерских Инструментов (zavod markscheiderskikh instrumentov = Plant for mining instruments).  See more instruments on the websites virtual museum for survey materiel (GSI) and the private museum Russian survey compasses.



(Picture Jaypee - priv. coll.)


(Picture courtesy Stanislav Istakhov)
Technical data
- Dimension : ... x  ... x ... mm
- Weight: ... g
- Graduation : 360 deg. counter-clockwise, only the cardinal points North (C, sever) and South (Ю, youg) are indicated.

BAKER Charles

PROFILE - Former British manufacturer of various instruments (microscopes etc.) in the 2nd half of the 19th C. He was located 244, High Holborn, London (1851-1909) and retailed also items made by Fr. Barker & Son (below).
Pic. at right: Schmalcalder-type instrument. Note the fine asymetrical fleur de lys. 
(Picture courtesy TML - click on image for enlarged view)
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BARKER (Francis BARKER & Son)

PROFILE - Former British manufacturer (for more information click HERE and in our LINKS).
Barker built prismatic survey compasses based on Schmalcalder's patent (green paper card). The next development was a cut-away aluminum card.

Other examples of survey compasses made by F. BARKER & Son in his own name or for retailers:
- BAKER Charles (above)
- BROWN (below),
- Lawes Rabjohns Ltd,
- ABNEY level.

See also: Marching, Escape, Pocket, Nautical and Wrist compasses.



Schmalcalder-type surveyor's prismatic compass (late 19th C.)
- Dia.: 75 mm
- Red and green filters, hinged mirror in the vane
(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
   

Left: F. Barker & Son 1909 catalogue
Right: a simple model without the red and green filters (early 20th C.)
(Pic. court. S. Majatowski)
Artillery compass FB2104 (built early 1980's)


(Pictures courtesy PC / TML)
Current version made by Pyser-SGI

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BERGET

PROFILE - French inventor of a prismatic compass system with grip (no info momentarily available).
Description and examples: see MORIN and HOULLIOT.

BG-1 (БГ = Буссоль геодезическая in Russian)

PROFILE - Made in 1980 by the Russian (now Ukrainian)  manufacturer IPZ. The two letters stand for Буссоль геодезическая = Survey compass. Technical data on IPZ' own website (in Russian).
Picture courtesy Stanislav Istakhov      

BK-20 (БK = буссоль круговая in Russian)

PROFILE - Circular compass type produced by IPZ (see above).See more instruments on the website Russian survey compasses.






Click on images for enlarged views

Fotos D. Matiasch


Technical Data
- Dimensions (Transit case): 160 x 130 x 60 mm
- Compass dia.: 110mm
- Divisions: 4 x 90°, Base: 360°
- White carrying belt

BLOCH

PROFILE - S. Bloch was an optician established in Strassburg (located now in France but part of the German empire before WWI).
He is listed in the clients register of the French manufacturer HOULLIOT.


Engraved on reverse:
S. Bloch - Strassburg i/E
Until 1918 (end of WW1), Strasbourg was a part of the German Empire. The city's name is thus written in German. The abbreviation " i/E " stands for "im Elsass" i.e. in Alsace:
.


The declination (handwritten in the lid, see pic. below) corresponds to Strasbourg (written in German) for the year 1914. The former figure for 1913 is still legible. Another compass (no. 317) is known. Its cover bears the values for Cüstrin, now Kostrzyn nad Odrą in Poland.

Technical Data
- Diameter: 68 mm
- Depth: 17 mm
- Weight: 175 gr
- Serial-No.: 102


BRÈCHE

PROFILE - The French Army 0fficer (capitaine) Brèche (no data available) taught military survey technique at the infantry school in Saint-Maixent. He published in 1911 his complete lecture course in which he described the compasses  HOSSARDROSSIGNOL, SOUCHIER and PEIGNÉ.
At r. : cover of the manuscript    
 
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BREITHAUPT  (F. W. B. S.)

PROFILE - German company located in the city of Kassel (also written Cassel in ancient times). For more information click HERE. NOTE: This company is NOT sponsoring this museum.
See also in the section MARCHING COMPASSES.
Pic. at r.: The product range in 1961 (German, Engl., French and Spanish)


The oldest instrument we know of (and also own) ist this large pocket-watch-shaped model with integrated clinometer made in the very first years of existence of this company. 




View of dial with clinometer extended. Note the shape of the letter S (Weft / Oft)



Reverse: Matt brown



Technical Data
- Dimensions: 90 x 80 x 14 mm
- Glass: cambered
- Weight: ca. 120 g
- Divisions: 2 x 12 hours, counter-clockwise. In the ancient times , in the French and German/Austrian mines, angles were measured in hours and fractions of hours (explanations HERE).
- Clinometer with collapsible ruler
- The needle's transit lock is a disk actuated by a lever located in the neck. It is missing on our compass. It can be seen on the picture at left on a more recent instrument with English cardinals and 360° graduation.



Pic. at right: large standard survey compass. The photograph was kindly transmitted by a visitor living in Indonesia, a country that was a Dutch colony until 1945. This explains why the cardinals are written in Dutch (south = Z for ZUID).
Tech. data: 360 deg. counter-clockwise, with half-degrees divisions, 1st half of the 20th C.

Picture courtesy Andrea Domingo

All contemporary model names (below) begin with the abbreviation CO (for COmpass).


(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

Model COVIS (..VIS = Visier = Sight)
Below: 1954 catalogue, no. 331




The dial (enlarged pic. at left) features an old company's logo (1930?), the letters F.W.B.S. in a cartouche.
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 100 x 85 x 18 mm
- Weight: 400 gr
- Divisions: 360 deg., counter-clockwise, English cardinal points
- S/N: 38926
- Level: in the base plate
- Clinometer: locking in zero position by means of a piston (compare with FPM)
- Colour: bronze metallic (U.S. or British Army?)
The needle locking system is a large-size screw (compare with the small piston on the catalogue picture)
Model name: COHEN (design by Dr. HENKE according to a 1954 catalogue, item 350)



(Click on pictures for enlarged views)


When fully opened (180°), both halves are connected via a lock and build a sighting system.
This model was also built in China under license (link to pic.).
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 80 x 70 x 25 mm
- Weight: 300 gr
- Divisions: 360 deg., counter-clockwise
- Colour: dark green-grey (Wehrmacht ?)
- S/N: 62231
- Clinometer: no locking system
- Level: in the lid
The beautiful arrow-shaped needle was later replaced with a simple straight one (visible in the1954 catalogue and on the Chinese version).
NOTE: very similar to the U.S. Forestry compass design (ex.: LIETZ)
Modell (name?) with slope angle measuring device



(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Side view: the slope angle measuring device is attached to two additional plates.


Technical Data
- Dimensions (open): 190 x 70 mm
- Height (closed): 33 mm
- Slope angle measuring device: 2 x 90°
- Weight: 330 gr
- Divisions: 360°, counter-clockwise
- Colour: light grey
- Serial No.: 94917
- Clinometer: no locking system
- Levels: two, one on each half.
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BROWN

PROFILE - J. BROWN, 76 St. Vincent Street - GLASGOW (no other info available). Most probably made by F. BARKER (see catalogue below).


The clinometer's graduation is in inches per yard.
The compass as shown in the BARKER catalogues
(1909 and 1919)

SIGHT COMPASS AND CLINOMETER

Technical Data
- Diameter: 67 mm
- Height (vanes grip erected): 45mm
- Weight: 155 g
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BRUNSON

PROFILE - Brunson Instrument Company was created in 1927 and merged with Keuffel & Esser. For history click HERE. Compass types made: see image at r., Brunton M2 below and in Marching Compasses.

BRUNTON

PROFILE -  D. W. BRUNTON was the inventor of the pocket transit compass called after him. For a comprehensive website about the instrument and its inventor click HERE. Several companies built this instrument, among others Brunson, Dietzgen, Fennel and Keuffel & Esser. See also the versions made by HARBIN called DQL-8 & DQY-1. The company BRUNTON(.com, profile in Wikipedia) doesn't provide on its web site any address nor any means to contact them. See also Marching Compasses / BRUNTON.


(Click on the picture for enlarged views)
Technical Data
Plain version without clinometer,
dated 1920-1930, S/N 588
- Divisions: 6400 mils counter-clockwise
- Dimensions: 75 x 70 x 25mm
- Weight: 240gr


D.W.Brunton


The original 1894 patent only featured one level tube. Later versions had two tubes or like here one tube and one spherical capsule.




(Click for enlarged views)
BRUNTON POCKET TRANSIT
(probably Model M1)

Technical Data
- Case: aluminum
- Division: four quadrants
- Dimensions: 75 x 70 x 30mm
- Weight: 235gr
- Levels: one tube and one spherical (compare with Dietzgen)

The clinometer's shape also changed several times.


 
BRUNTON M2 (U.S. Army)
Technical Data
- Case: aluminum
- Divisions: 6400 mils counterclockwise
- Dimensions: 75 x 70 x 30 mm
- Weight: 230 gr

Identical model made by BRUNSON Kansas

Army Documentation:
see M2 compass
IMITATIONS

Beware of copper imitations. Some are called BRINTON or BRONTON (s. pic. at l. and pull-down menue point MISCELL. / FAKES). Most of are generally signed STANLEY LONDON, a retailer (see website) of replicas or fancy items "made in India" which bought the name of the famous british compass maker.

They cannot be used as measuring instruments but only for decoration purposes
.



BS-2 (БС-2 in cyrillic letters)

PROFILE - Russian-made compass. The two letters stand for Буссоль Стефана = Stephan compass. Made in 1967.

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B Sh 1 (БШ1 in cyrillic letters)

PROFILE - Russian Schmalcalder-type compass. The two letters stand for Буссоль Шмалькальдера. The manufacturer was ARSENAL (logo: a prism, it used to feature a soviet hammer and sickle symbol) located in Kiev (see history in Wikipedia and click on Russian Language for a picture of the logo). See more examples of logos here: NOVACON (look for K as in Kiev). See more instruments on the website Russian survey compasses.



(Pictures Jaypee & M. Rohan)

Technical data
Production year: 1960
Height (closed): 23mm
Height (opened): 95mm
Width: 75mm
Divisions: 360°
Weight: 200gr
(Pic. of Tech. Data in User Instr.)

Wooden case: 128 x 97 x 38mm
(Link to picture of compass stowed in case)

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BTK-1 (БTK-1 in Russian)

PROFILE - Russian-made compass. The three letters stand for Буссоль ... i.e. .... compass. Made in 19... ?

BÜCHI

PROFILE - Swiss company created in 1871 by Friedrich BÜCHI (more information HERE).
The modern geologist's compass (see pic. at r.) was manufactured until 2007. The former head of production Mr. Andersen is in charge of selling the remaining items and ensuring the product support.

Picture at right (courtesy BÜCHI): a modern instrument 

See also MARCHING Compasses.




Pictures courtesy Jaypee, Büchi's priv. coll. Bern
This is the oldest compass signed Büchi: see the engraving in the lower right corner F. BÜCHI i.e. the founder of the company Adam Friedrich Büchi.

Technical data
- Dim.: ca. 120  x 100  x  20 mm
- Production years: ca. 1871-1900

Note: This instrument was most probably a prototype. We don't know whether there was a series production. The divisions on the divided circle and the side rulers are not precise. There is no means of taking into account the magnetic declination.




Pictures courtesy J. Houcke

Technical Data
- Dimensions: 95 x 65 x 19 mm, weight: abt. 9 oz. / 300 g
- Adaption for declination: +/-20°
- Manufactured: 1960s

User instr. available in German, Engl. and  French
A slightly smaller version called MOD. LBS was built in Spain by LAGUNA* (Zaragoza / Saragossa).



(* read profile HERE)


Technical Data
- Dimensions: 80 x 55 x 20mm
- Weight: 175g
- Clinometer: pendulum and two scales (degrees and %)
The patent no. indicated (199553) could not be found until now.
- Side ruler: 130mm when fully opened



NOTE about the picture at left: unfortunately, the luminous paint layer has fallen off the magnetic needle and is broken in twoe parts.


LEVELS (called in French sitomètre and in German Sitometer)

(see also here: LEVEL)
The

Dim.: 60 x 46 x 10 mm
System without compass similar to the French Secrétan Modell 1911. Documentation in Spanish language for various artillerie instruments. This booklet also describes the next sitometer in the table and an aiming circle called Richtkreises (compare with the fig. in Patent filed by E.F. Büchi, no. 71471 dated 17.1.1916).
ARTILLERY LEVEL by
E. F. BÜCHI Bern
(old version)



FUNCTION: Depressing the push-button located close to the leather strap releases the compass card and causes the metallic blade (visible from above, picture in the middle) to swing back.  This blade is a mirror reflecting the image of a small tube level (for pics see next row). It gives thus free vision onto a portion of the compass (cont'd).


card (3200 mils) through a prism and onto two portions of rulers graduated from right to left from 0 to 800 (upper row) and from 2400 to 3200 mils (lower row).


Figs. in 1st patent (1916 GB no. 100,091).
German and French issues: go to these editions of the museum. The Spanish Patent (1920) is also available.
The substraction disk for quick mechanical computing of angles difference.





Various user instructions are available (fac simile): either Swiss Army Manual (German) or the company's short version or even as a flyer in French (see next row).
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 60 x 49 x 29mm
- Weight: 140gr
- Divisions : 2 x 3200 mils.
- Protection grid: swivelling by 180 deg.

Leather pouch:



(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
SIMPLE LEVEL



User instr. in French and German:




(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)


Model for anti-aircraft units: scale graduated from right to left from 0 to 800 (upper row) and from 5600 to 6400 mils (lower row).
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 60 x 49 x 29mm
- Weight: 110 g
- Divisions: 6400 mils

Patent (1930) with external level and sight
Evolutions: two patents were issued in 1929 for Switzerland (nos. 131.841 and - 842, no no. known for the UK) describing a system with a lamp (below) and a sight (at r.):


Swiss patent Nr. 131.842, model with external lamp and sight

Instrument with double optics for slope angle and range measures (Goulier system, compare with Meridian-Oulianoff)
Descr. (in German) HERE



Patents above and at r.: probably not filed
Instrument similar to left one but more compact and compass with double pivot
Descr. (in German) HERE



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BUNDESWEHR

(Provisional location)
Manufacturer: Steinheil was a manufacturer located in Ismaning (near Munich Germany, read the full story in German in Wikipedia and here in FENNEL).
See also the marching compass types issued to the units of the West German Army (Bundeswehr) since its creation in 1956:
ASKANIA, BÉZARD, BREITHAUPT, BUSCH, WILKIE etc.



Pictures courtesy D. Matiasch



(Click on images for enlarged views)
Compass for aiming circles and theodolites

Technical Data

- Overall dimensions: 90 x 80 x 18 mm
- Compass dia.: 49 mm
- Weight: 187 g.
- Divisions: 6400 MILS counter clockwise
- Adaption of declination: none (to be calculated)
- Manufacture year: 01/1986
- NSN:1290-12-127-1145
- Case material:aluminium
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BURNIER

PROFILE - Burnier was Captain with the French Artillery. He invented in 1832 two instruments, a compass and a level. The latter was widely used within the Army. A comprehensive description of both can be found in the Bulletin de la Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale (issue 1833, copy available).
The compass was described as being more practicle because smaller and much cheaper than Henry Kater's design (i.e. Schmalcalder's improved version). A detail drawing shows an instrument with a magnifying glass (3x) through which a rotating graduated cylinder driven by a magnetic needle can be observed. The sighting device was a folding bow with a horse hair. The level was built according to the same principle concerning the compass but featured in addition a rotating lever remaining horizontal when the instrument was tilted and pointing to the value of the elevation angle along a curved scale. An improved version appears in Secrétan-Lerebours's 1853 catalogue (fig. HERE). It was manufactured until the 1930s.
Fig. at r.: catalogue of the French company Société des Lunetiers (S-L) - click for enlarged view.

The item displayed below seems to be the latest and most advanced design.



(Click on the pictures for
enlarged views)
Sighting (see scales detail at right)


Wenn the vanes are folded down, the horse air sighting device is protected between two fittings 

Model no. 36173 - Technical Data
- Dimensions: 75 x 50 mm
- Weight: 270 g
- Lensatic system
- Vanes, numbered pair (no. 17)
- Two measuring scales: one for vertical angles (slopes)  in percentage 100 = 45°, (pic. below, left) and compass divided in 400 grades (at r.)



- Leather lanyard and articulated staff adapter
- On the top plate: window for the reading light
- Brass, lackered, with push-button brake for the compass rose.
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BUSCH / cxn

PROFILE - Former German company (for more information click HERE)

Basic model of the GRUBENKOMPASS (miner's compass, c. 1920-1930) which had in addition a "geodesic" division (400 grades) and a clinometer.


Technical Data
- Dimensions: 85 x 85 x 26 mm
- Weight: 160 gr
- Metallic side ruler
Patent for a compass system with telescope sight (no. 908918, 1953)
This system was first defined in 1941 by Karl Martin and Dr. Helmut Naumann.

(Click on the drawing at right for an enlarged view)

Magnetometer or double compass

This instrument called in German Erdfeldmesser (earth field meter) was also used in the German army to measure residual magnetism in metallic ships and aircraft in order to determine the best place to install the compass. Excerpt of the description in a BUSCH Brochure:
"New development of an 'earth field meter' based on the principle defined by Friedrich Bidlingmaier in 1907 of a double compass (Doppelkompass): the measurement is effected via the influence of the external field onto the fields of two permanent magnets (compass needles) placed above one another on the same axis at a short distance of each other."  See another instrument still in use in the BSH's Magnetkompasslabor.



Pictures by courtesy of BSH


cxn = Busch Rathenow

VIKING-Katalog
Erdfeldmesser or Doppelkompass
(link to drwg. in techn. descr.)

Dim.
- Height: 4" / 97mm
- Dia. 3 1/2 ": 84 mm
The lower needle (5) indicates the field's intensity in millioersted.

The information in the Viking catalog "Plath's Magnetometer" is probably an error.




Pictures Treodelmarions
(Click for detailed view)


Artillery compass

Technical Data
Dimensions:
. Height: 100 mm
. Diameter (compass): 90 mm
- Weight: 1170 gr
- Tube levels: two

Compare with GOERZ and ZEISS

- C -

CARY

PROFILE - Cary London, dia. 2.5". Schmalcalder-type compass.
Picture by courtesy of Nick Godridge
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CASELLA

PROFILE - Louis Pascal [formerly Luigi Pasquale] (1812–1897) Casella was a British manufacturer of scientific instruments British. See also Pocket and Nautical compasses.

WARNING - CASELLA NEVER PRODUCED THE BRUNTON TRANSIT COMPASS.



(Click on images for detailed views -
Pictures courtesy Michael Curtis)
Technical Data
- Dimensions (dia.): 2" (50 mm)
- Separate transit locks for both compass and clinometer cards
- Clinometer: There is a ‘flat’ on one side of the instrument so that it can stand on a flat surface.
- Markings: The instrument is signed CASELLA LONDON on the lid. On the clinometer card is the Patent no. 1926, whilst on the mask is no. 1909.

Clinometer side

(Click on images for detailed views -
Pictures courtesy Michael Curtis)


Compass side
Technical Data
Late 19thC Military Pocket Altazimuth
- Diam.: 2.25 in.
- Thickness: 1.4 in.
- Weight: 5 ½ ozs.
Has a telescope, transit locks for compass and clinometer, compass damper, and blue filter. The Clinometer dial is signed L CASELLA LONDON, and the War Department Arrow surmounting the letter ‘I’ (for India). The instrument has a threaded bush underneath for a tripod.
Compare with the Abney Level.
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CHAIX (now TOPOCHAIX)

PROFILE - CHAIX is the name of the founder of the French company now called TOPOCHAIX. Sturdy and precise compasses for survey and forestry works (see also CHAIX' Plane Tables).
The museum offers numerous original documents for sale:
- Facsimile photocopy of antique User Instructions for the models Universelle and Broussarde and for the Clisimètre can be ordered (18 p., French and English).
- See complete list (patents, flyers, manuals etc.) in the French version HERE.
Description and user instruction of the Peigné compass types (square bakelite and cylinder-shaped metallic versions) in the Topochaix catalogue.

  

Pict. Jaypee - CHAIX private coll.

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

CAPITAINE CHAIX Model PROTOTYPE
Technical Data
- Material: Aluminum
- Dimensions:  x  x  mm
- Clinometer: Pendulum
- Alidade: Plexiglas
- Drawer-type case maybe to stow notes

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The series instrument (see next row) developed from the prototype at left is obviously of the Bézard UBK type i.e. featuring a hinged mirror to look at the needle and the divided circle while aiming at a target through the slots in the lid. The angle value is the figure facing the pointer located at the mirror's hinge. The compass also features a scale for slope angles engraved on the lid's right side. It is graduated in percent (20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 75,100). This compass could theoretically be used to grossly point a small piece of artillery (see in the Bézard chapter).
Model CAPITAINE CHAIX
 Series version (1939)



(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Side views of lid (with sights and scale) and ruler:

 

 

Link to a detail view of divided circle and needle. Note: The red part is the south end! (arrow feathering), the white end (arrowhead) bears a dot of luminous paint.
Technical Data
(Functional descr.: see upper row)
- Dim.: 2½ x 2½ x 4/5 in. (75 x 75 x 20mm), 225gr.
- Div.: 360° clockwise
- Pendulum-type clinometer (see Meridian-Oulianoff)
- Material: brass, blue-grey paint, celluloid
- Aiming sights: slots in lid
Pic. below: Serial no. 265 (centre), the inventor's name (in left corner) and maker's mark "DL" of the DEGLISE & LECOMTE works (in right corner), CHAIX's  shop  first name.


 
Model BROUSSARDE
Pict. at right: The pouch with a window.


Technical Data:
Prismatic compass, model BROUSSARDE.
- Dimensions: 120 x 85 x 2mm
- Weight: 310grs
- Serial-no.: 6639
- Level: visible while sighting in a flexible metallic mirror
- Sighting system: notch above the prism (can be fixed in the optimum position by a knurled screw) and point at the far end of the lid.
NOTE:
The early model was square-shaped like the Universelle (picture HERE).
The currently produced items feature a red casing.

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Model BROUSSARDE with LASER POINTER

Technical Data
Identical with the basic Broussarde model but with an additional laser pointer for high precision sightings.
The prototype of the UNIVERSELLE model was a BROUSSARDE compass wih a dendrometer

Technical Data
- Dimensions: .. x .. x .. mm
- Weight: ... gr.

(Picture Jaypee - CHAIX' private collection)
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Compass called TOPOGÉOLOGIQUE (in the user instr. at r.)
This version predates the patented model called UNIVERSELLE. It featured a mirror with oval opening, a clinometer with integratred tube level (see descr. in next row) and a tube level below the rear sight.

The ring bearing the crystal and the divided circle is simply inserted into the casing.



Click on the images for enlarged views and on the links for more pics.
This first version had a dry compass with 360° counter clockwise division. The limb was divided into 400 grades overleaf and could be reversed easily.
The needle's south end was painted red and the north end had luminous paint coating.
S/N: D 335.



Compare the vane to the patented model.

Abstract of the user instr. Note the ruler placed in a slot (see more details in the enlarged image).

Intermediate version featuring two different levels and the new fluid damped floating disc. The maker's name CHAIX appears with the abbreviated first name P. = Pierre.
Dark brown case, S/N: L656 engraved on bottom.

Leather pouch with loops to be carried on a waist belt. The prism and its fitting are larger in the series gray models. The clinometer's locking systems are also different.

Drawing in the patent of the model called UNIVERSELLE, filed in 1950.

The typical CHAIX compass rose appears on a patent dated 1955.

Model UNIVERSELLE (built c. 1970-80)
The manufacturer's name Lecomte et Déglise Constructeurs was CHAIX' own shop.

How to use the vane
There are two scales: left side for survey tasks, right side in MILS. It must be held 50cm (20") away from the eye (using a lanyard around the neck) to assess distances. Hereto, one needs a measuring rod with two targets 2m apart from each other.

   

Markings: Base 2 m  = Basic height 2 meter; Millièmes = Angular Mils;
50 Cm de l'oeil = 50cm from the eye

Drawing: Measuring a tree trunk's diam. using the Mils divisions on the vane.


Viewing the card's rim through the Prism:




Technical Data
- Case: aluminum, grey paint
- Dimensions: 100 x 90 x 36mm
- Serial no.: 1892
- Weight: 550gr
- Measuring angles is done either from above through the magnifying glass on the crystal or through the folding prism.
- Clinometer/dendrometer clutch: tiny push-button at the rear face below the vertical MILS scale for slopes.
- Clinometer graduation: top half in grads, lower half in degrees.
- The dendrometer has two scales: 20m (0-40) and 30m (0-60)
- Compass rose dia.: 64mm
- Compass divisions: 360°

Model called La Minière with two loops for hanging at a cable in mines (see also "miner compass")



(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)



(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)


Clinometer (free sliding bead) with two scales: degrees and grades
Model RECONNAISSANCE

Technical Data
- Dimensions: 85 x 85 x 30 mm
- Weight: 170 gr
- Shock absorbing rubber casing
- The foldable grip is also a 50 mm ruler

Donation of the French company TOPOCHAIX to the Online Compass Museum.




(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Theodolite
Technical Data
- Dimensions:
. Basis: 950 x 100 mm
. Height, telescope horizontal: 130 mm
- Telescope lenth: 130 mm
- Manufactured: approx. 1960's
- Optical cross, cylindrical level (seen in a brass mirror), prismatic reading of the compass
- Clinometer: in brackets alongside the scope
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CHARVOZ

PROFILE - This item is idendical with an instrument formerly made by LIETZ. The country name "JAPAN" is printed above the "S" mark.
We suppose that LIETZ (after having been taken over by SOKKIA) had their products made under license in Japan.
Charvoz or Charvoz-Carsen Corp was big in the drafting side of the business in the US. 
They even owned a survey division called THS which all of their instruments were made in Japan.
An identical instrument bears the name LUTZ.

Technical Data
- Dimensions: 4 1/2" side length
- Divisions: quadrants (4 x 90°) on inner and outer dials
- Clinometer: +/- 90°
- Side rulers:
. simple, inches (4 1/2) 
. double (two-way), inches with decimal divisions from 0 to 4.50 and from 4.50 to 9.0.

(Picture Matt Reed - click on the image for an enlarged view)


Sokkia-Lietz catalogue
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CHINA

PROFILE - This compass was made by the Chinese company Union Instrument Factory.
(The Online Compass Museum doesn't possess any information about this company. Your help is welcome.)
Today, only one manufacturer is known to exist: HARBIN Optical Instrument Factory (P.R. of China)



Markings in the square window:
- Aluminium Precision Clinometer
- Beijing
- Public Private Company
- Union Instrument Factory
(Translation: Jen-Wen Chang)


(Click HERE for view of the leather pouch)


Pin-hole ocular
and needle lock


Above: The reticle in a tube
Below: The reticle as seen through the pin-hole ocular (left)

Technical Data:
- Dimensions: 150 x 58 x 17 mm
- Weight: 220 g
- Compass diameter: 40 mm
- Level: red liquid
- Release of clinometer in square window: push-button (above level)
- Locking of magnetic needle and clinometer in round window: lever on pin-hole ocular face
- The pin-hole ocular tube can be extracted (click for detailed view):


Modern Japanese model made by Ginza TZS Tokyo
(Pic. Alex. Rogutskyi)
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Clisimètre (French and Swiss level)

This instrument appears in a 1930 MORIN catalogue and is called clisimètre à collimateur respectively niveau-lyre du Colonel Goulier. It was used together with a survey compass like the CRC or HUET system. When hold by the ring, the pendulum's weight ensures a vertical position, i.e. the horizontal position of the scales' zero references. One can then look through a magnifying glass at a long vertical display. There were different versions for general survey works, for the Army, for the climbers association Club Alpin (C.A.F., also called Vallot model) etc.
Users instructions: Look through the magnifying glass and read the value on the scale of slopes which can be seen alongside the actual landscape.

MORIN catalogue

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)


The sight and a picture showing the center of the display on one horizontal line: 0°/oo, ∞ (infinity), 0 grades
Military version - Technical Data
- Dimensions (folded): 95 x 50 x 10 mm
- Length (deployed): 190 mm
- Weight: 235 g
- Scales
. left: slope angles 0-400 mils (upwards and downwards)
. right: angles (vertically or horizontally) 2x  0-50 grades (gon)
. center (two survey scales to measure distances): one based on  a man's mean height (1.70 m) and the other on a survey pole's length (2 m).
This system was also used for a BÜCHI patent project for an instrument that was eventually not filed by this manufacturer but later realized by MERIDIAN.
Instrument made by the Swiss manufacturer MERIDIAN. It is called in German Gefällmesser


Picture courtesy J. van Heuverswyn
Technical Data
- Dim.: .. x .. mm
- Weight: 240 g
- User instructions: available in French and German
- Side device: angle measured in per cent

In addition to Goulier's system, this design features a graduated plate which makes it possible to measure directly the slope of a wall.
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COLLIGNON-HOULLIOT

PROFILE - Former French company located in the Marais district in Paris, successor of HOULLIOT (more information HERE).
This company manufactured many different compass types for retailers but seldom sign them. Here are some examples:
1) Compass with vanes, clinometer and cross-staff adapter
2) Compass for unknown use
See also Pocket compasses, Marching compass Modèle 1922 and wrist compasses.


Unknown use





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COOKE, Thomas

PROFILE - Thomas Cooke was a scientist (read WIKIPEDIA, Th. Cooke (machinist). The company T. Cooke & Sons Ltd. located 14, Great Chapel Street, Westminster, London SW (factory: Buckingham Works, York, England) produced optical instruments like telescopes and survey materiel (see also the section Pocket Compasses). BEWARE OF FAKES ! A coarse imitation of this compass type is currently being sold as genuine antique. For more details go to the section Menue / Miscell. / Fakes.
Pic. at right (View of a 1907 catalogue, courtesy Smithsonian Institution Libraries Digital Collection).  
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Cross staff head

Description : Survey instrument designed for measuring right angles in the simple version and any angle in the sophisticated version. The latter are called in French goniomètres à pinnules or pantomètres in MORIN's catalogue. The corresponding designation in German is Kreuzkopf or Winkelkopf. The simple version existed either in an octagonal (see example: SECRÉTAN) or a cylindrical body (by MORIN recommended shape). It featured a hollow body with sighting slots in which horse hairs are attached. Each slot faces another one which is cut in the opposite half related to the height, so that an horizontal plane can be determined. The cylindrical systems with a precision chapter ring around the body only had 4 slots. In Germany they were manufactured by the ancestor of the company now called FPM Holding.


Cylindrical cross staff heads
(MORIN catalogue)


(Click for enlarged views)
Octagonal and cylindrical cross staff heads
(WICHMANN catalogue)

(Picture by courtesy of Ivars Drulle)
Model with level bubble signed WICHMANN
(voir aussi Schubert & Vialon)
Technical Data
- Diam. (top): 2.75" (77 mm)
- Diam. (basis): 3.54" (92 mm)
- Height: 4.33" (115 mm)
- Weight: 2.2 lbs (1.2 kg)
- Marking: Gebr. Wichmann Berlin, (most probably made by a predecessor of FPM, below).
We also know of an instrument signed H. Bretschneider (Halle) and painted grey like described in the WICHMANN catalogue
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CRC

PROFILE - Former French company that built (among others) the marching compass type Modèle 1922.
The instrument shown below is called Modèle 26. It is marked  Boussole topographique (i.e. Survey compass) but together with the abbreviation M.G. for Ministère de la Guerre, which meant it was issued to the armed forces by France's War Department (and probably also Belgium's).
For description and pictures, go to HUET who built a modernized version after WWII (modified in 1957).



(For more pictures see HUET)
Technical data
- Dimensions: 110 x 97 x 30/80 mm (prism folded/ erected) 
- Weight: 300 gr
- Divisions : 400 grades, clockwise
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CONT'D