- C -


See the company's history and a compass description on Cammenga's own website. Standard lensatic compass of the U.S. Army since 1992.
See also BRUNSON, Stocker & Yale (abbrev. 'SandY'). This item was also manufactured by Superior Magneto and many others.

Stamp in lid : 97-08-39
(encoded date August 97 and batch no.)
Model M-1950*
Technical Data

- NSN: 21-26460-02E
- Case: aluminum and brass
- Dimensions: 75 x 57 x 28mm
- Weight: 150g
- Luminescent markings: Tritium (³H) paint
* Evolution of model M-1938

Canadian Kodak Company - CKC

Some Mark III compasses (see Barker) are marked on the bottom ckc/C (link to pic). The first three letters stand for the abbreviated maker's name Canadian Kodak Company (s. pic at right). The meaning of the uppercase C is unknown - maybe simply ... compass ?
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(Go to Survey Compasses)


Abbreviated name of the Italian company Costruzioni Elettromeccaniche Venegonesi (Electromechanical Products of Venegono, a city in southern Tyrol/nothern Italy) of the brothers Ecolo and Eugenio Pagani. The plant was located Via Varesina 124 in Milan (see ad in table below : "prodotti a Milano di proprietà dei Fratelli Pagani").  C.E.V. Italia (created first 1906, changed and moved to Milan in 1937, end of business?) was a manufacturer who made mainly aircraft instruments, motorcycle components, mainly speedometers, indicator and light switches etc. It manufactured for Ducati, Vespa, Moto-Guzzi and many others.  It also manufactured other technical instruments and tools, such as incubators.
We know of two versions of a compass, one of which is signed C.E.V. on the press-button inside the thumb ring, probably the later model. An unsigned (earlier?) model doesn't feature the magnetic deviation scale and its rotatable marching-course setting-arrow is entirely white while it has only a luminous arrowhead on the CEV-marked instrument.
The cardinal points are in Italian (see Miscellaneous/Cardinal Points) all printed horizontally top-down on parallel lines. The figures, letters and markings are made of radium-compound paint and can be read through a magnifying lens glued on the bezelled crystal which drives the marching course arrow :
(See also the marching compass designed by Schlacht).

Picture above courtesy
 kadmarkets and K. Takacs

Click on the images for enlarged views

The pouch and the abbr.  C.E.V.
Technical Data
- Dia.: 60 mm; Length with pendant: 40 mm
- Weight: c. 4 ozs. /135 gr.
- Divisions: 6400 mils, clockw., every 100, numbered every 200, marked in addition every 20 within a 200 Mils range on both sides of each main cardinal (see enlarged view of pic. at left)
- Transit lock (link to pic.): sliding alum. button on the side.
- Pouch material: leather imitation (cardboard?)
- Production period: 1940's to 50's

Advert. for a distance counter featuring C.E.V.'s logo

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Captain Louis Wentworth Pakington Chetwynd (b. 15 December 1866, d. 18 April 1914, more details in Nautical Compasses) patented this compass dial in 1906.
See also Wrist and Nautical compasses

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

The inventor's marking under the NORTH mark: Captain CHETWYND's 

The marking on the opposite side is partly concealed under a screw head:
Patent no. 25965/06
(Click HERE to view the patent)

View of the underside with the refilling screw (compare with the wrist version) 

Technical data
- Diameter (body): 70 mm
- Depth: 30 mm
- Weight: 250 gr
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Manufacturers unknown, maybe the (former ?) Chinese company Shanghai Yonghong Instrument. The current version is produced by HARBIN Optical Instruments (No further information available for the moment - Your help is needed.) See also Pocket compass and Survey compasses (China).

We display in the table below adaptions of a  model called COKIL (see below) built under license.
- Type 5-1 was the standard compass in the Army of the People's Republic of China.
- Types 5-7 and 6-2 are said to have been utilized by the Viet Cong troops (North Vietnam's Army) during the wars against France and the U.S.

BREITHAUPT-Signed Chinese Compass
Germany supported the Chinese Nationalists during the 1920s and 30s in their fight to control the Chinese mainland and repel several Japanese incursions. The German Military Mission provided military training, equipment and manufacturing expertise. Germany’s motivation was probably driven more by commercial opportunity rather than ideology. When the Nationalists eventually lost the Civil War with the Chinese Communists in 1949 and retreated to Taiwan they left the manufacturing plant and equipment behind which enabled the People's Republic of China to continue making the compasses. Picture of an instrument built under license of Breithaupt in the 1930s (Picture sent by a visitor).
Under the maker's name are two characters  兵工 which stand for Military Industry of Weapons and Equipments manufacturing. Under these are a further six Chinese characters, the date is October 1937. This was the year before the German Military Mission to China was withdrawn, May 1938. (Source: Robert Thacker)

TYPE 5-1

The signs on the rose read:
- under the red star: Type 51* or production year 1951 ? This can also be read 5-1 = May First which is an important day in the whole socialist world.
- in the clinometer sector:
• company name: Shanghai Yonghong Instrument
• a concealed sign: DEGREES

(Translation: Jen-Wen Chang)
TYPE 6-2

The signs on the rose read:
- Type 62*: logical continuation after 51 or production year 1962?
- Sign in a circle: 
apparently the symbol for "cloud" in simplified Chinese. It can be the symbol or name of the factory where it is made - probably in Yunnan Province. The symbol forms part of the word "Yunnan" short for "云 南光学仪器厂”, means" Yun Nan Optical Instrument Factory".

* The Chinese figures:

Picture courtesy Mandarintools
(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 65 x 62 x 25mm
- Weight: 125gr
- Diameter (compass): 50mm
- Ruler (compass open): 100mm
- Rose with two divisions: 360 degrees and 6000 mils.
- Map reader on the reverse side

Below: model 1957*
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Domenico CHINAGLIA was an Italian manufacturer located in the city of Belluno, province of Venice. He created his company in the late 1930s and also produced cameras and electronic material. The compass below is a version of the British prismatic Verner's Mark VIII design. Chinaglia very probably only bought the casing and attached the tab with its name and logo to the lid. The rotating disc seems to be a special design customized for the Italian Army.

Pictures by courtesy of B. Wets 
Click on the images for enlarged views

Technical Data
Dimensions:  52 mm
Length open: 140 mm
Height closed: 20 mm
Divisions: double 6400 MILS scale, clockwise
Marking: OFF. (Officina) CHINAGLIA BELLUNO
Logo: the stylised letters C and D inside a lozenge


Some rare instruments and especially compasses are signed COLE. The oldest were made in the 18th c. Benjamin COLE (1695-1766) had been apprenticed to Thomas Wright before becoming head of the firm Wright & Cole after Wright's death. The company Cole & Son (created together with his son also called Benjamin, 1725-1813) succeded until it was taken over by John Troughton in 1782, surviving as Cooke, Troughton & Sims in the twentieth century (read the full story in Wikipedia). Benjamin was a maps and instruments maker (click HERE for a view of his trade card).

Picture Compassipedia
Click on the image for an enlarged view

Technical Data
- Dim. of casing (link to pic) : 6" square (152mm)
- Dia. dial: mm
- Graduation: double 360° scale, clockwise and counter-clockwise

Marking: COLE Lombard Street London
This was Benjamin Cole's (senior) address from 1744 to about 1747/48.
Compasses marked COLE Fleet Street were probably made later by his son. (source Directory of British scientific instrument makers, 1550-1851 by Gloria Clifton).


Charles Louis Collignon was the nephew of the compass maker Henri Houlliot and he worked in his company. He designed several evolutions of the famous standard military compass Modèle 1922 like the one with transparent capsule (registered in Jan. 1934 for 25 years, no. 33637). During WWII, the old Houlliot company had been shut by the German administration and C. L. Collignon founded after the war a new company called Collignon-Houlliot.
Collignon-Houlliot supplied parts of compasses and finished compasses to most famous retailers like MORIN etc. until the late 1970's. As far as we know a single product bore the maker's name (see Pocket compasses). Apparently, a model was developed together with CHAIX which features the typical rose of wind and magnifying lense.

Pictures courtesy M. Collignon
Click on images for enlarged views

The double magnets

Technical Data
- Dia. casing: 7omm
- Dia. card: 62mm
- Fluid-damped capsule
- Graduation: 360° clockwise, precision 2°
- Double magnets
- Unique prototype, no serial production
This item is still owned by the Collignon family

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COMPASS Instrument & Optical Co. Inc.

The Compass Instrument & Optical Company, located 268 Fourth Ave. New York 10, (other address known: 104 E. 25th St. New York 10) was created in (?) and ended ca. 1968. Retailer for many products like precision and optical instruments (scales, microscopes), measuring tools (slide rulers) etc. There was a separate catalog for each category.
We also display a BOYD sundial bearing a sticker with the white and blue COMPASS logo.

Picture at right: 1967-1968 compass catalog - (Click on image to view page 4)

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

Technical data
(identical to the original M-1938 lensatic model made by Gurley, see above)
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Captain Frank Osborne Creagh-Osborne, Royal Navy, (1867/1943) was Superintendent of Compasses with the British Admiralty and inventor (see his portrait HERE).  His various inventions were built by H. Hughes & Son Ltd, Dent & Co & Johnson Ltd, Sperry Gyroscopes Co., etc.
There exist two versions of a sturdy and heavy LENSATIC marching compass made by SPERRY GYROSCOPE Co. BROOKLYN N.Y.
They look pretty much the same. The main differences can be seen in the pictures below. The application of Radium compound paint for letters and figures instruments was described in a patent no. 110,203 (follow link for pic.) filed in Oct. 1916 by F. O. Creagh-Osborne, F. H. Glew, A. J. Hughes and Henry Hughes & Son Ltd.
See also the categories Wrist and Aeronautical compasses.


(Click on the pictures
for enlarged views)

Instructions for use
and liquid composition available


Technical Data
- Foldable rifle-type sighting system
- Crown divisions 360 deg. counter-clockwise,
- Adjustable marching course marks
- Adjustable lense
- Case: brass
- Dimensions: 83 x 60 x 32 mm
- Weight: 200 gr
- Fluid-dampened compass card


(Click on the pictures
for enlarged views)


Technical Data
- Foldable rifle-type sighting system
- Adjustable lense
- Case: brass
- Dimensions: 85 x 60 x 32 mm
- Weight: 230 gr
- Fluid-dampened compass card

Instructions for use and liquid composition available

The design shown in the table below was maybe the very first lensatic compass. However, it was apparently abandoned before the patent applied for was accepted because F. Barker & Son already had filed a patent for a lensatic compass (see DOLLOND further down).
The large lense in the lid is cut-away in its upper part so that the observer's eye could focus on an object seen over the erected front-sight pin while reading the angle value off the compass card. The case is smaller and lighter than the common prismatic compasses built later and than Captn. Chetwynd's system (above and in Wrist Comp. section).

Ad published in Creagh-Osborne's book The Magnetic Compass in Aviation, 1915

Description in P. Dériaz' booklet "The Prismatic Compass" (1917)

Click on the images for enlarged views
Liquid compass with magnifying lens

This instrument was recommended by Capt. Creagh-Osborne in his booklet The Magnetic Compass on Land for use in Tanks (description HERE, item 2).

Technical Data
- Sighting device: Folding pin-shaped front sight used together with a rifle-type rear sight protruding on top of the rim, above large lense (in lid window)
- Dimensions (case dia. x thickness): 2 1/4 x 1 3/16 in. (60 x 30mm)
- Weight: 6 ozs. (180 gr)
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise
- Manufacturer: Hughes & Son, probably 1914-15
- Radium compound figures and letters on card (radiation value: 8.5µSv/hr measured in direct contact)

User instructions (8 pages, copies available)

They were patented together with HUGHES & SON (see below and also in the section Wrist Compasses). In 1915, Henry A. Hughes took part in a meeting with leaders of the British Army and explained the advantages of this compass (read the minutes in 'Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass' - Ask for a copy)

Version with azimut circle

(Click on the picture for a detailed view of the dial)

(Click on the picture for enlargement)
Technical Data
- Folding rifle-type rear sighting device
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise, inverted on the card
- Dimensions (case dia. x thickness, w/o prism): 2 3/4 x 1 3/16 in. (68x27mm)
- Weight: 0.5 lb (250gr)
- Liquid-dampened compass card
Fig. published in the patent no. 1148/15 (12 p., copies available)

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Former French company that built (among others) the compass type Modèle 1922.
See also Survey and Artillery compasses.

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical data
- Dimensions and weight: see Modèle 1922
- Divisions : 400 grades, clockwise
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The brand Cruchon & Emons appears on two different compass models which were used during WWI.  We guess that this was a Swiss manufacturer but we lack evidence. The patent was filed by LONGINES. Thank you for helping.
- One compass type was a mirror compass signed C. & E. BERNE or PARIS (see pic. at right) especially built for the U.S. Engineers Corps. This pattern was also produced by PLAN Ltd (click on this link for more pictures and the technical description). After WW1, this model was proposed for hikers (see pic. at left, click on pic. for view of entire advertisement). A special version was made for Argentina's Army (Ejercito Argentino) featuring the country's coat of arms on the lid. We also have a simplified version signed Abercrombie & Fitch.

- Another model (prismatic Verner's pattern) was engraved LONDON.


William C. CUDE of the U.S. Army filed in 1945 a patent (no. 2,487,044 - see also fig. at right) for a compass which was partly identical to the design used during WWII (see GURLEY) but with features of the later models like Cammenga's.
In the patent it is said that the technical solution also was adapted for a wrist band version and the only product matching more or less this description is the paratrooper compass made by Superior Magneto and by Taylor.
NOTE: These instruments had already been issued during the war but kept secret and not patented by their real inventors. Anyone may build them without having to pay royalties to the fictitious inventor if for the U.S.Army.
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- D -


F. Darton & Co. of London was a manufacturer of weather measuring instruments. The company, created in 1834, existed apparently until 1998. The compasses bearing this name were produced by compass makers like F. Barker & Son (see also pocket compasses).

Pictures courtesy M. Brüllke
(Click on the images for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dia.:  2 in.


Paul Guillaume DELCROIX was a French officer. He designed this marching compass in 1894 after he had filed a patent in 1892 for a survey compass (more information HERE). The first one was invented when he still was Capitaine and was called Règle topographique - boussole rapporteur (see Survey compasses). The second one was a small marching compass intended to comply with the French War Dept. order to design a boussole directrice.  Some items are marked Comdt D+  i.e. Commandant Delcroix.
A DELCROIX' compass was still proposed in the Secrétan catalogue (no. 344, p. 51 - ca. 1920, w/o picture).

(Pictures courtesy Jaypee - private coll.)
Technical Data
- Casing: aluminium
- Dimensions: 58 x 58 mm
- Rotatable divided circle

It consisted of a square casing on which a front sight with a vertical wire could be fixed. It also featured a thread attached to the front sight and held over the rear sight to the eye to help taking bearings. 
Delcroix published in 1896 the booklet La boussole directrice de marche", an augmented issue of the first description published in 1894 in the military weekly Revue du cercle militaire. Our copy features a hand-written note signed "P. Delcroix".

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Former French company (more information HERE) famous at the turn of the century for its cameras.
They  produced like several other companies (see CRC, Lemaire, Secrétan, Morin) a military version of the compass type Modèle 1922.
Sources : Lucien Gratté. See also pocket compasses.

DLM (Modèle 1922)

The three letters DLM stand for Demaria-Lapierre and Mollier. The company was created through the merger of Demaria-Lapierre and Mollier in 1930. DLM continued to produce the compass type Modèle 1922.

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical data
- Dimensions and weight: see Modèle 1922
- Divisions : 6400 mils, clockwise
This item was issued to Belgian troops after WWII (the abbrev. MG for Ministère de la Guerre has disappeared). It was carried in a leather pouch attached to the waist belt.
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Former French manufacturer, mainly of nautical compasses (see also the aeronautical DALOZ patent).
A factory in Malakoff (a southern district of Paris) produced this hand-held marching compass (no other information momentarily available).
Description: This instrument allowed for adaption not only of Magnetic North (arrow head with luminous paint) but also of the angular difference between the Lambert projection's North value on the French military maps (indicated by the two letters NL for Nord Lambert on either side of the zero line of the divisions, see the pic. at right and in the table below) and the geographical North (NG on the central disk with the cardinal points).
The divided circle rotates by means of the base plate with notched rim. On the right hand side, a 100 mm ruler (bearing the manufacturer's name DOIGNON and the factory's address MALAKOFF) can be attached by means of a dove-tail fitting (tilted by 45 deg.).

This item was issued to the French colonial troops. Markings in the pouch flap
- Unit's stamp: 3e Battaillon / 15e R.T.A. (3rd Batt., 15th Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens). The unit's coat-of-arms is not recognizable. For more information about this regiment and a picture of the 1st R.T.A.'s coat-of-arms, see in the French part of WIKIPEDIA the entry for the R.T.A.
- written by hand with black pencil, left of the stamp: n° 4 / 10e Cie (no. 4, 10th company).

NOTE: The provisional official users' instructions (called notice in French) call this compass type a Modèle 1922 but the instrument that was called Mle 1922 until after the Second World War is entirely different. We consider (but this still has to be substantiated) that the company DEMARIA-LAPIERRE (see above) won in this year a competition against DOIGNON for the procurement of compasses for the French armed forces. DEMARIA-LAPIERRE's dial design is not only identical with the one of the MORIN pocket compass utilized until then but its protection lid with 60 mm divisions makes the leather pouch and the removable ruler superfluous. Moreover, this compass design was much more heavy and complicated, and thus expensive.

Fitting and ruler

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

Underside: the two pins for adaption of the magnetic declination and the angular difference between geographic North and the maps' projection North.

Provisional user's instructions
Modèle 1922
Issue Febr. 14, 1923

(Photocopies avlbl.: see SHOP)
Technical Data
- Material: brass, black paint
- Divisions: 400 grades, clockwise
- Diameter (rose): 60 mm
- Depth: 20 mm
- Weight: 225 g
- Mirror: glass glued in the lid

NOTE: The instructions describe a compass version with a black paint lubber line on the crystal (a portion of which is in luminous paint) and with automatic locking of the needle in upward position through the closing of the lid.

The Lambert projection (link to Wikipedia), a reference to geographic coordinates is indicated in the top right corner.
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British instruments manufacturer and retailer, now D&A, Dollond & Aitchison (more information HERE).
This system was 1st described in a patent application (no. 1818/1915) and in a patent appproved in 1917 (no. 103.019). It was made by F. BARKER & Son (see catalogue below) and sold by several retailers (like N. & Z.) and signed by them. Compare to a similar prismatic instrument made by Steward.

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

The manufacturer's name DOLLOND LONDON engraved in the cover can be read through the lens.
Compare with the U.S. model M-1938
LENSATIC compass - Technical Data
- Dia.: 50mm
- Height: 27mm
- Weight: 180gr
- Card: ivory (orange colour due to Radium-compound paint - still highly radioactive!)  

Description published in a F. Barker & S. catalogue dated 1926:

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Items probably made by the West German company WILKIE for a retailer (may be for the Austrian Market - no other information momentarily available).  These compasses feature a fluid-dampened needle with "winglets" and the cover top side bears a design made of  NATO stars which are the are typical logo WILKIE's products. See also DUROPLAST and TfA.

(Click on the pictures for  enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions:
. Black case: 65 x 62 x 18mm
. Transparent plate: 11 x 65 x 20 mm
- Needle: fluid damping
- Markings: DOMATIC,
- Users instructions in 4 languages:
 English, German, French & Dutch).
- Divisions: 360 deg. and 6400 mils.


Dominion was an arms supplier which had bases in Canada and other Commonwealth countries. They later changed their name to Imperial. They were probably taken over by another company. They produced definitely no compasses but bought them from a wholesaler and then branded them as their own. This instrument is in fact a STANLEY G150 that was issued to IRAQI troops during Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. It features the Arabic letter jim within a triangle, the Iraqi Army's emblem during the 1970's. (Source:
Picture courtesy M. Jamison      
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Probably made by WILKIE (no other information momentarily available).

(Click on the picture for an enlarged view)
This compass features a foldable holding lever like the older Stockert models ('Tourist', etc.) but the fluid capsule with "winglets" and the box' design with NATO-stars are typical signs of WILKIE's products. This item could be the result of a cooperation especially made for a company producing the new synthetic material called DUROPLAST, successor of the Bakelite.
See also DOMATIC.
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 67 x 56 x 18mm
- Weight: 85 gr
- Needle: fluid damping
- No markings: the name DUROPLAST only appears in the users instructions.
- Divisions: 360 deg. and 6400 mils. The dial was also available with black figures on white ground.
- Mirror and protective cover made of a single one sheet of metal.

Users' Instructions available in German, English and French
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- E -


Former British company. Enbeeco (link to ad) is an anagramme built from the company's name Newbold & Bulford Co. Ltd.
See also Pocket compasses.

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)

The company's name is the sole information engraved on the rear side.
Technical Data
- Diameter: 58mm
- Height: 33mm
- Weight: 200gr
- Divisions: 360° clockwise
- Production: 1960's ?
- Material: aluminium

Pictures at right: Special version called DICI featuring 6000 MILS divisions, specially produced for Iraq's Army. 
Note the Arabic letter called jim engraved on the protection tab of the prism, the symbol of Saddam Hussein's army.

Picture of DIAL: go to DICI
(Pictures courtesy Jaypee - priv. coll.)


The Russian manufacturer московский опытный завод энергоприбор (Moscow Specialized Plant Energopribor) located Marshall Biryuzov Street in Moscow produced the models called Azimut (A3ИMYT), Glavkulttorg and Tourist 2. Its logo (in cyrillic letters) was a losenge in which the letter П (P for Pribor) was placed inside the letter Э (E for Energo). 

(Click on the picture for an enlarged view)
Energopribor produced in the 1960s a marching compass called "for Tourists * " (компас туриста).
*  Read entry in menue / Miscell. / Terminology

At left: the user instruction for a TOURIST compass, probably Type 1. 
The logo on the back of the Tourist Compass type 2


Johannes Leonardt ERNST was a German maker located in Altona (now city of Hamburg). Mid 19th c.

Picture by courtesy of LEDFOOT - Click on the picture for an enlarged view      
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The Escape Compasses are presented in a specific category (click on the link for access).


German company (for more information, click HERE). The 1986 catalog (8 p., copy available) displays several very simple pocket and marching compasses as well as so-called special compasses for car, ship, hiking and scuba diving (wrist) compasses. Some are displayed here under the names WILKIE, DUROPLAST, DOMATIC. However, two instruments are sufficiently special to merit being described here.
See also Pocket, Survey and Wrist compasses. For a comprehensive description of all ESCHENBACH models go to the website Die Kompassmacher.

The internal electronic device

(Click for enlarged views) 
Model "Electronic" (1987)

Technical data
- Mirror type: "unfolding downwards" (similar to the RECTA system)
- An LED (light emitting diode) indicates the marching course set (red push-button on left-hand side must be depressed).

- Dimensions: 90 x 55 x 26mm
- Weight: 135 g
- Side rulers: 70mm and 3 in.

Patent of the lower mirror: see PERMAN
Former military version of WILKIE's MERIDIAN PRO model in use in the Netherlands' Army. The compass currently used made by K&R features a bubble level.
Pictures: Frank Liebau
The "Radioactivity Warning" sticker signals the use of Tritium (³H) self-luminescent paint.

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)

Model MK 9657

Technical Data

- Dimensions: 3 3/4 x 2 ½ x 1 3/16"
(95 x 62 x 29 mm)
- Weight: 7 ¾ oz. (223gr)
- Divisions:
• bezel: 6400 mils, clockwise
• card: 6400 mils and 360 deg.
- Precision: 5-10 mils

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This compass was probably built by LUFFT who filed the patent. It resembles the famous Bézard system (west-east-bar) in a simplified casing.

(Click on the picture for an enlarged view)

This model is based on a design patented by LUFFT in Germany in 1938 (only the Swiss patent no. 212230 is known):

The compass in colonel Schmitt's booklet Karte und Gelände:

Technical Data
- Dimensions: 100 x 60 x 12 mm
- Weight: 55 gr
- Pouch: leather imitation

The Museum possesses 2 such compasses with cardinal points in French and in German. Mid 20th c.

The FALKE compass as displayed in a WICHMANN catalogue in the 30's and a French export version called Faucon. Note the LUFFT logo, the company that built the famous Bézard compass and probably took over the export activities.


Facsimile of the French user instr. available


Compass ("Busole" in old Austrian German language) designated "FAMBRI" (maybe after its designer) and manufactured by Anton Kleemann in Vienna, Austria. It says a patent was applied for but it was very probably never issued because the only difference with other compasses are degrees lines engraved around the capsule on the base plate.
Picture by courtesy of H. Waldmann  


Fargel & Rossmanith was a manufacturer located in Vienna (Austria) who made or assembled compasses under license granted by BUSCH. Their confidential 3-letter code was cah. We know of them only a marching compass issued to the Wehrmacht (s. BUSCH).
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F-L (French Limited)

The Internet Compass Museum doesn't possess any data concerning this company. Your help is needed.
French Limited version of a Verner's pattern compass Mk VIII (see exhibit made by Ed. Koehn for a Verner's pattern Mk VII compass).
A facsimile of the original User Instructions can be ordered. (Click HERE to see a photograph of page one).

(Click on pictures for enlarged view)

Mark VIII: Closing the lid causes automatic locking of the compass card.
Technical Data
- Diameter: 54mm
- Depth: 21mm
- Weight: 150gr
- Pouch: leather
- Card material: aluminium
- Date: 1918
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FPM Holding - Freiberger Präzisionsmechanik

German company located in Freiberg (Saxony). For more information click HERE.

Picture at right: stamp of the former FRG (DDR) featuring a type F-52 compass rose    
Click on pictures for enlarged views

This model name (...?) 1950's was in use with the KVP (Kasernierte Volkspolizei) the police organisation before the GDR army (NVA) was created.

The manufacturer's logo features a mine's entrance with two stars over three mountain summits.
The original model had a bakelite case and an aluminium lid. Later products were entirely made of bakelite and the divisions (6000 mils) were clockwise.

Technical Data
- Diameter (lid): 64mm
- Height: 16mm
- Ruler: 60mm
- Divisions: 6000 mils, counterclockwise.
User instructions (photocopies available)

(Click on the images for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 75 x 48 x 16mm
- Weight: 56gr
- Divisions: 360° counter clockwise, E-W inverted.
- Clinometer: 2x 90°
- Declination adjustment: c.45° (screw on the capsule's right side)
- Magnetic needle: screw transit lock
- Round level
- Ruker: 40mm
- Material: Aluminum
- Colour: Military-Olive green (GDR)
- Logo: only "FREIBERG"

Model F52
This model was the compass with which the paratroopers were equipped in the former East Germany's army (NVA) and the Czechoslovakian Army. Divisions: 360°  (pic. at r. courtesy Eugen N.).

Particular feature: The marching course setting bar in the middle reproduces the design of the WW II  compasses (see BREITHAUPT above) but there is a major difference: on the Western (NATO) compasses, this line is oriented on a  West-East axis while on compasses used in Eastern European (communist) countries (i.e. within the former Warsaw Pact, this line follows a North-South axis.
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 70 x 58 x 23mm
- Weight: 95gr
- Case colour: milit. green
- Lid: metallic or plastic, black, heart shaped
The lids shape and material could vary:

         F58      -         F52 

Model F58

Descr.: Manual of milit. survey of the NVA (East German Army).


Technical Data
- as F52
- Case colour: NVA oliv green
- Lid: metallic, olive green, round

Model F65
Series with fluid needle dampening

Particular features:
the division markings are very thin. The capsule body is colourless. The luminous paint dashes on the capsules's outer back face are lackered.

Technical Data
- Dimensions: 70 x 58 x 20mm
- Weight: 68gr

Model F70

Technical Data
The model F70 was a transitional version to model F73.
Dim. & weight same as F65 except mirror made of glass.

Images at left : flyer and user instructions

Model F73
Marking: DDR on the capsule bottom

Technical Data
(Dim. & weight: same as F65)
Particular features: The divisions markings are broad. The capsule's body is yellowish. On it is the abbreviation DDR (i.e. former GDR) and markings to take into account the magnetic deviation (W-20-0-20-E).

Fig. in the manual Orientieren im Gelände (Editions: Militärverlag der DDR)
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Model Universalkompass
(Bézard system)

Technical Data
- Dimensions: 70 x 64 x 25mm
- Weight: 150gr
- Divisions: 6000 mils
- Declination adaption: with coin slot under the base plate
- Built: approx. 1965
- Clinometer: locked when not in use (clutch on lid rim)
- Together with leather pouch and manual

Pouch and user's manual

Differences between the models
Sport 3  
Ruler: 50 mm; scale: 1:25.000, 4 km
and Sport 4
Ruler: 120mm; scale: 1:15.000, 800 m
Model SPORT 3 and SPORT 4 for cross country orienteering

Technical Data
- Dimensions : 125 x 60mm
- Graduation : 360 deg
- Magnifying glass
- Step counter
- Production year: 1968

Pouch and user's manual
Model SAT for orientation of satellite antennae

Technical Data
- Dimensions : 125 x 60mm
- Graduation : 360 deg
- Clinometer: ball
- Declination correction
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French WW1 Marching compasses

- Go to Boussole directrice and also Morin


R. FUESS was a German company (more information HERE). FUESS produced during WWII the infantry-men's standard Marschkompass.
During WWII, the company's secret code was 'cro'.
See also Survey and artillery compasses.

Catalogue of R. FUESS
(Click for enlarged view)

The company's name on the lid of a Marschkompass. The 1st figure was printed twice :
- 3 and 4 are overlaid

Technical Data
- (see Breithaupt, Busch, Kohl etc.).


According to the List of the three-letter codes of the opticians who supplied military materiels during WWII, the code fzg stands for the maker Feinmechanik GmbH, Kassel.
Pic. German WWII marching compass. Descr. go to Breithaupt and Busch.
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- G -


GAMMA R.T. / GAMMA N.V., now GAMMA Műszaki R.T. (Reszveny Tarsasag, Gamma Technical Corp.) is a Hungarian Manufacturer (created 1920, located in Budapest, produces measuring instruments). GAMMA built probably in the 1930's the Hungarian version of Bézard's small compass model (without mirror) as well as the German-written export version probably for Austria.
See also the large Hungarian models made by MOM and generally marked with the code number of the factory: 41. 

Pictures by courtesy H. Waldmann
(Click on images for enlarged views)

Export version of an imitation of the smaller Bézard Modell I (without mirror) featuring German cardinals probably mainly for Austria and Switherland more than Germany.

Technical Data

- Dim.: 50 x 60 mm
- Casing: Bakelite, black
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise
- Cardinals: German
- Note: In lieu of the usual for Bézard typical west-east-stripe featuring the wording W - PATENT or ORIGINAL-Bézard - O, this item only shows the company name GAMMA resembling the OPTOS Logo
- Lid, external face (link to photograph): no engraving contrary to Bézard (DIREKTION). Inside, the arrow is made of Aluminum and not paper.

(Click on the images for enlarged views)

The East-West stripe reads GAMMA-BUDAPEST (compare with the original Bézard compasses)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 2 x 225" ( 50 x 60mm)
- Weight: 70 gr
- Case material: bakelite, black
- Divisions: 6400 mils. (counter-clockwise), North = 3200
- Cardinals: in Hungarian language


Otto Ganser, Vienna (Austria) was a manufacturer of military artillery and survey instruments. He also made this Bézard-type compass probably around WWI.


Établissements GAUMONT - Paris (See AIRCRAFT COMPASSES).
GAUMONT also built a Modèle 1922 but featuring a casing made of brass instead of aluminium like all the other ones. The manufacturer's name appears only inside in the left corner between the hinge and the compass. No markings like serial number outside. This first item was apparently not bought by the French Army (compare to the series version at right).

Pictures courtesy F. Liebau
(Click on images for enlarged views)

Technical Data : See Modèle 1922

Pictures courtesy L. Apple
(Click on images for enlarged views)

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Former Polish manufacturer of measuring and drawing instruments. (for more information click HERE). This company won in 1933 a contract for delivering a first batch of 4285 compasses to Poland's Army. This instrument was first designated M.K.32 but soon renamed K.M.32 (click on link for comprehensive description) after its inventor's initials, Colonel Mikołaj Kulwieć maybe in order to differenciate it from the German common designation Marsch-Kompass, MK (for more information about M. Kulwieć, click HERE). It is also known in Poland as the „Kulwieć compass“ (cited after the Fundacja Kosciuszki's website - see LINKS).
Pict. at r.: Instrument without the coat of arms of Poland's Army and the model designation K.M.32
(Photograph courtesy M. Dörner)
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A small-sized user instruction (probably the oldest one) bears the manufacturer's signature GKS-Geräte K.G. Stuttgart-S, Uhlandstr. 15.
The abbreviation GKS stands (according to the heading on another user instruction) for the German word Geländekompass (field compass). When this instrument was built shortly after WWII, this abbr. was still very famous for Geheime Kommandosache ("Top Secret"). This maybe played an important role for the marketing.
 It was made by the former German manufacturer Bellmann & Co. (Belco), located in the same building than the compass' retailer NEUFA Fabrik für optisch-technische Geräte GmbH (both names appear on the user's instruction).
Neufa was created in 1946 and ended business 1970.
Bellmann & Co., located Brauhausstrasse 17 in Ansbach (Middle-Franconia), was created on May 1st, 1945 for the production of plastic (Bakelite), metallic and wooden  items. In the Yearbook for 1950/51, Belco added extruded and pressed items. The company ended business in 1975.
(Source: city archives of Ansbach).


Small pict.: view through the lens onto the card's rim indicating the bearing value of 200 mils (c.5 deg.) West, corresponding to the magnetic North at that time (1950's)

The original box and a version with metallic hands

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: 84 x 65 x 25 mm
- Weight: 90 gr
- Divisions: 6400 mils. (counterclockwise) and figures 1-12
- The magnetic needle depicted on the compass card already points to Magnetic North (MN)
- Front lens for direct reading of the bearing angle
- In the lid: clinometer (long arrow) and adjustable marching course marker (short arrow, scale 6400 mils), both made of plastic. Another model features metallic pointers.

User instructions signed by GKS-Geräte

Photocopies of all documents can be ordered.
User instructions: Belco version in German (below, at left) and modern version in English with colour photos

Pictures courtesy H. Waldmann
(Click on the images for enlarged views)
GKS made other instruments like Romer scales (link to comprehensive article). Pic: model ZL with magnifying glass) bearing the GKS logo (in the upper left corner) and marked D.R.G.M.

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J. M. GLAUSER & Sons was a British manufacturer (more information HERE).
The compasses produced (see pic. of catalogue at right) were pocket hunter and wrist versions of the pocket compass Mk VI, a variation of the Mk III marching compass during WWII and a Mk IX (see below).
The Mk.4 compass was designed in the 1950s in answer to a request for a liquid prismatic compass featuring the ability to trap any bubbles inside a double casing pending topping up of liquid, and to easily replace the pivot (see Patent DRAWING - full description available on demand). It was a specialist design, of some interest, rather than a mass produced article.
In 1951, the company received a substantial order for compasses (through J. H. Steward Ltd. of the Strand, London) from the Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition, led by Eric Shipton - a final accolade to a skilled and high-class manufacturer, whose founder had personally designed the Light Mountain Theodolite for E.R. Watts & Son, London, which was supplied to the Mount Everest Expeditions of 1922 and 1924.
Compare with the MARK IV made by SISTECO.

(Pictures Jaypee priv. coll.)

Above: The screw at the base giving way to the pivot.
Below: a Mk.4 retailed by J.H. Steward

GLAUSER Mk.4 - Liquid Prismatic Compass
Patent no. 821719

Technical Data
- Dim.: 5 1/2 x 4 x 1 1/2 "
- Weight: 11 oz
- Divisions: 360 deg. clockwise
- Production: 1950's
(Full specification available on demand)

Rear side of a Mk IX compass (see Barker):

Note the "B" letter in the serial no.
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(in Russian главкулътторг)
This compass bears the words "по заказу главкулътторга" i.e. "made by request of Glavkulttorg", the Chief Agency for Trade in Cultural Goods during the Soviet Era. The manufacturer was ENERGOPRIBOR.

Click on the images for enlarged views

Aiming slot in lid
and logo near loop (see enlarged view)
Technical Data
- Diameter: 75mm
- Thickness: 20mm
- Divisions: 360°

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U.S. manufacturer (for more information click HERE).
The most famous user of a Gurley marching compass was probably general Patton. Image below: Patton strikes a pose shooting an azimuth with his lensatic compass M1938 while standing nearn a tank at the Desert Training Center in the Mojave Desert of California in 1942.

(Click on the images for enlarged views)

Later French version featuring a scale for measuring speeds; range: 10 hrs/600 km (arrow at right: 1H = average speed)
(Click for an enlarged view - Picture Laurens)
This lensatic compass model is a light-weight evolution of the M-1938 design based on the British F. BARKER model. It was described in the patent no. 2,487,044 filed by W. C. CUDE (go to this entry).

Technical data

- Dimensions: 72 x 55 x 20 mm
- Weight: 80 gr
- Divisions: 360 deg. and 6400 MILS
- Evolution of the basic design (compare with the Superior Magneto item)

This instrument featured a dampening push-button on the left hand side
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- H -


J. W. HANDLEY was an Australian manufacturer located 649- 657 Victoria St Abbotsford Melbourne. Several compass models signed J.W.H. are known. See AUSTRALIA.

H. B. & S.

Siehe BROWNE (Henry BROWNE & SON, Ltd)

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Danish-made compass with watch function (the Greek word helios means sun). The watch scale on the dial is similar to the post WWII-produced Kadlec wrist compass made in Czechoslovakia. By pointing the zero line (red arrow) of the base plate at the sun, the needle's north end tells the hour of the day (scale on bezel.
NOTE: A picture of (or better: an original instrument) would be nice. Thank you for helping.

(Click on the images for enlarged views)

A facsimile of the original user instructions can be ordered.
Technical Data
- Compass dia.: 50 mm
- Base plate dim.: 120 x 60 mm
- Weight: 40 gr
- Compass scales: 360° (black, on bezel) and 400 gon (red, on base plate) act as a nonius ensuring a 1/5th of a degree accuracy
- Grid: square size 10x10mm
- Date: 1960s ?
- Marking: K.D. PAT. = Royal Danish Patent.
- Sole agency (and manufacturer?): N. Juul-Jensen, 34, Bredgade, Copenhagen, Denmark

HEYDE, Gustav (GHD)

German maker located in Dresde (Saxony) created in 1872. Most famous products were astronomical instruments. Heyde handed over the company to his sons in 1912. After the name had been changed in „G. Heyde K.G., Werkstätten für Feinmechanik und Optik“ the company was state-owned in 1945 under the communist regime and became „VEB Feinmess Dresden, Teilmaschinen und optisch-feinmechanische Geräte“. There is still an optician by this name in Dresde.


Sighting aid: pins at North and South. Capsule doesn't rotate.
This instrument is similar to the system designed by Johann von Bézard but without mirror. Sighting device like on the UBK model via a slot in the lid and a double line in a window on the opposite side.

Pictures by courtesy of B. Morgen
Click on the images for enlarged views
Technical Data
- Dimensions: approx.. 85 x 100 x 20mm; Ruler: 80 mm
- Divisions: 360° counter-clockwise (link to pic.). Luminous dots every 30° (Radium-compound paint)
- Clinometer: +/- 45°, pendulum concealed behind scale, unlocking lever on lid.
- Markings: Gustav Heyde Dresden, no..  8438 and GHD
- Metallic "spoon" - holdig device ? (link to pic with leather pouch)


The German manufacturer Fritz Hofmann located in Nuremberg assembled marching compasses with aluminum lid (example: see Breithaupt) for the IIIrd Reich's Army (Wehrmacht).
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British manufacturer. The firm was incorporated as Henry Hughes & Sons Ltd in 1903 and opened a production facility in Forest Gate (read the full story in Wikipedia "Kelvin Hughes / The Hughes connection").
Hughes also produced various marching and wrist compasses based on Creagh-Osborne's patent (see this name in these categories), pocket compasses and a Mk. III.
The instrument displayed here is "THE BLACKER GUIDE COMPASS". It was probably designed by Colonel Stewart Blacker (see Wikipedia) who was an explorer and inventor of the famous anti-tank weapon PIAT. He was with the expedition that first flew over Mount Everest in 1933. This model resembles strongly the compasses designed by Creagh-Osborne and built by Sperry.

Picture courtesy of R. Thacker
Click on the pictures for enlarged views

View of the base
The studs on each side were probably used to lock the compass onto a piece or artillery.
Technical Data
- Diameter: 59 mm
- Length (fore-sight folded down): 77 mm
- Weight: 205 grams
- Engraved markings on the base: A.F.R.W.  GREN. GDS. (Grenadier Guards)

Picture courtesy of N. Godridge
Click on the pictures for enlarged views

The letter B in the s/n means that this instrument was built by F. Barker & Son for Hughes.
Technical Data
(Barker catalogue dated 1907)

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- I -


Apparently, India was by-passed when the Chinese transmitted their knowledge about magnetism and compasses to the Western world via the Arab sailors.  We display in the chapter Miscell. / Cardinal Points / India a pocket compass with cardinals in Urdu and Sanskrit and a nautical compass card in Sanskrit. India built marching compasses like the MK3A based on the famous Mark III designed by F. Barker and a strange box named MAG. TRNG (follow the links for more details). The Indian compass markings featured the usual broad arrow (crowfoot) used by the British Army with an additional upper-case letter 'I' for India.
Today, India is the most important maker of more or less well made replicas and of entirely invented fancy models (s. chapt. BRUNTON and FAKES).


MAG. TRNG. (Broad arrow and 'I' for India on back)

Click on img. above for enlarged view

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I.O.R. - Intreprinderea Optica Romana

Romanian manufacturer of optics. Built also this Bézard-type compass. For more information click HERE.

Model B1-69


(Click on pictures for enlarged views)
Technical data
- Dimensions: 65 x 65 x 17mm
- Weight: 145grs
- Mirror: metallic, square with rounded angles
- Marching direction arrow on lid not painted.

Pic at right: IOR's logo and model name
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Israel's Defense Forces IDF called Tzahal ( צה״ל) was issued several types of compasses: Stanley's G-150, Barker's Mark III and the ELOP home-made model.

Pictures courtesy Doug Carter
(Click on images for enlarged views)
Unknown Compass Type/Manufacturer
Technical data

- Manufacture date: ...
- Dimensions: ... mm
- Weight : ... g
Inscriptions in Hebrew at the lid hinge

Pictures courtesy Gail & Phil Ralph and Gurn1701
(Click on images for enlarged views)

Technical Data
(similar to F. Barker & Son)
- Manufacture date: ?
The inscription גולדברג תל-אביב (Goldberg Tel-Aviv) refers to Emanuel GOLDBERG (follow the link to the Wikipedia entry ).
The symbol engraved on the prism protection tab resemblimng a mouse ...

Click on image to view the dial.

Design based on BARKER's Aerolight model

Pictures courtesy David Geras
(Click on images for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Dimensions: Lid closed: 89x39x61mm; Lid open (in vert. pos.): 115x103x61mm
- Weight: 10 oz / 225gr
- Illumination: Tritium vials, six for NORTH alone! The Israelis didn't have Tritium technology. Only the UK manufactures the correct size for these compasses, and the UK refused to supply because the Israelis were breaching patent rights in copying Stanley's G150 and Barker's M-73, so they had to improvise by using lots of small ones.
Source: USTR, 2005 Special 301 Report, Apr. 29, 2005.
- Manufacturer: El-Op (Electro-Optics Industries Ltd.). For more information, see "Elbit Systems" in Wikipedia
- Manufacture date: 1976-1980
- Markings: on back: TSAHAL (Israel Defense Forces, IDF); on the prism protection tab the "diamond" the word "אלפית" on top denotes the compass markings type, here MILS or Milliradian.
Letters in the center on the back:
- "ממ" (mm) above the serial number
- "צ" stand for IDF use (צ = Z for Tsahal) (
- "נ" denotes that it has been tested ( נ = N, the first letter of "Nivdak" - tested). Not all compasses have this marking.

NOTE: This was the last conventional compass used before Israel's Army Tsahal changed to GPS.
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Italian manufacturers produced (or maybe only assembled parts sent from England?) Mk VII compasses. Examples are known signed by OFF. CHINAGLIA - BELLUNO on the compass itself and ELLETROCOSTRUZIONI CHINAGLIA - BELLUNO on the pouch and also OFFICINE G. SAIBENE - MILANO.

- J -


Former Polish company (Warsaw).
For more information click HERE
This manufacturer produced the compass model called K.M. 32 after its inventor's initials, Colonel Mikołaj Kulwieć, born March 24, 1890.
It is also known in Poland as the „Kulwieć compass“.
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