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- D -


F. Darton bought their cases from Dennison of Birmingham and put their own inserts inside. They were a recognised supplier to the British War Department (now Ministry of Defence). The dial's design (Singer's patent) is identical with the Dennison compass below (click on the image at right for an enlarged view).


Louis-Joseph Deleuil (1795 - 1862) was a famous French engineer, optician and inventor of scientific instruments. See Wikipedia (F).
Dia.: 60 mm, crystal slightly convex.
 (Pictures by courtesy of S. Huerta - click on the images at right for enlarged views).


Former French manufacturer (cameras) that produced among other companies a military version of the compass type Modèle 1922 (more information HERE).

(Click for enlarged view)
Military pocket compass featuring the same design as the famous Modèle 1922. The MILS were no longer indicated by four but only by two digits (compare with MORIN). This very simple basic design didn't permit to take as precise bearings as with the original Modèle 1922 which was integrated in a case with an aiming device in the cover. Technical Data
- Diameter: 55 mm
- Depth: 18 mm
- Weight: 65 gr

Transit lock on the side
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Former British manufacturer in Birmingham (more information HERE).

Pictures by courtesy of
 The Compasscollector (see LINKS)

(Click on picture for an enlarged view)
Mark V compass with SINGER's patent card design. It was superseded in the end of 1916 by the much more precise Mark VI design.
Example: see W. Terrasse.

Technical Data
- Diameter: 45 mm
- Depth: 14 mm

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C. W. DIXEY were "Opticians to the Queen" and several compasses bear their signature. However, they had them made by other manufacturers like J & G SIMMS. They traded from 335 Oxford Street, 3 New Bond Sreet and from Old Bond Street in London from 1838 and 1862.


British instruments manufacturer and retailer, now D&A, Dollond & Aitchison (more information HERE).

Box compass (early 1800's)

Click on pictures for enlarged views
Signature: Dollond London

Picture courtesy fatato81

Technical Data

- Diameter: 55 mm
- Height: 15 mm
"Long neck" design

Technical Data
- Diameter:  mm
- Length:  mm
- Face: émail
- Date : mid 19th C.

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DOMATIC was one of the trade names of compasses made by WILKIE sold by TFA DOSTMANN.


DOXA was a Swiss clock manufacturer (see example in DOXA wrist compass). The brand was used from the 1960's on by a Japanese retailer. This compass appears in a MITSUI catalogue (see Jap. Pocket compasses further below and also Japanese Wrist compasses).

Technical Data
- Diameter: ... mm
- Depth: ... mm
- Weight: ... gr

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- E -


This French word is the right translation for scout. The "Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France" is an interreligious French scoutism and guiding association (more information in Wikipedia). Some British and U.S. compasses are designated Pathfinder (follow this link and see also EENBECO below) or Trail-blazer (wrist compass) and correspondingly Pfadfinder on some German compasses.

Technical Data
1932 catalogue of the AUX ÉCLAIREURS shops

Camping materiel, among others compasses.

(Click on images for enlarged views)


Former British company. Enbeeco (link to ad) is an anagramme built from the company's name Newbold & Bulford Co. Ltd.
See also Marching compasses (F. Barker & Son).

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)

Pictures courtesy  J.M.A. (Bakjma)
Technical Data
Light boy scout compass
- Diameter: 50mm
- Height: 15mm
- Weight: 29gr
- Divisions: 360° clockwise
- Production: 1950's
- Material: bakelite
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German Manufacturer located in Nuremberg (more information HERE). See also Marching and Wrist compasses. The catalogue for the year 1937* (click on image at r. for details) displays among many others a pocket compass built by Joseph SINGER & Sohn. * Document reproduced by courtesy of Frank LIEBAU, visit his web site Die Kompassmacher

Catalogue for 1937
 (click on the image for an enlarged view together with a similar compass published in the 1938 Stockert & S. catalogue)

Technical Data
- Diameter: 45 mm
- Height: 14 mm
- Weight: 36 gr
- Divisions: 360° clockwise
- Production: late 1970's
Typical WILKIE-made compass. This is easily recognizable because of the needle's shape and the stabilizing winglets (not to be seen on this picture because of the yellowish discolouration of the crystal.

(Click on picture at left for enlarged view)
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- F -


Unidentified manufacturer - probably VERPIOT.

The smallest of all spring hunter type pocket compasses to date (see Definition in Miscellaneous / Terminology)

Technical Data
- Diameter: 1 in. / 25 mm
- Depth: 11 mm
- Weight: 19 gr

F S & C (F. SOMMET & Cie)

F. SOMMET & Cie was in the 1930's a retailer for various instruments among others compasses made by HOULLIOT. The printing plates for the catalogue images are still in the hands of the heirs of the HOULLIOT family.

Catalogue F S & C

Example: the boussole directrice

Various compasses - Top row: For details go to "Pocket Pomp. / Glass", and "Other Comp./ Photographers compasses."

Printing plates
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- G -

GLASS, transparent rear face compasses

Unidentified manufacturers - See also C. Stockert & Sohn, Burnat, S-L and Thalson.

French compass with glass rear face, early 20th c.
Compare with a similar compass made by C. Stockert & Sohn

Technical Data
- Diameter: 48mm
- Depth: 12mm
- Weight: 35grs

Presented as a special compass for ballooning in a Vion catalogue (c. 1910)
Compass with glass bottom. It was carried in a leather pouch with snap lock and a large round window. Early 20th c.

Technical Data
- Diameter: 45 mm
- Depth: 12 mm
- Weight: 40 gr
Serial no.: 56 (punched on the side)
 Technical Data
- Diameter: 45mm
- Thickness: 10mm
- Weight: 14gr
- Convex glass on both sides
- Marking: JAPAN (click on link for more items)

Cyclist or rider compass
British made, maybe J. H. Steward

Technical Data
- Diameter: 37mm
- Thickness: c.15mm ?

The compass case is either nickel-plated brass or aluminium, with a black painted exterior finish. The top glass is bevelled, the rear side glass is flat.
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The German company Carl Paul GOERZ Optische Anstalt was created in 1886 in Berlin (quoted from WIKIPEDIA).
We also display in the category Survey compasses two versions of an artillery compass (WW1 and WW2).

This instrument existed also without lid

Picture courtesy I. Argyriadis. 
Click on the images for enlarged views

Technical Data
- Diameter: 47mm
- Thickness: 16mm
- "Press-to-release" transit lock in the loop

This instrument is in fact a marching compass and very similar to a PLAN Ltd signed instrument.

Picture courtesy M. Collignon    

Model with glass bottom and sighting device like the one featured on the Adrianoff wrist models issued to the Red Army's troops (AYRKKA).  
The casing features a groove and two tabs but no divisions. It was part of an unknown instrument.
Dim.: Dia.: 55 mm ; Height: 15 mm

Compare to the similar transparent items w/o sights made by C. Stockert and to an unsigned one displayed HERE.
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- H -


Former French company which became COLLIGNON-HOULLIOT after WW2 (more information HERE). Houlliot exported worlwide (Germany, Russia, USA etc. - see LUFFT, model 2745). Houlliot was one of the main manufacturer of survey compasses and parts thereof. He also invested a lot of work in small military compasses invented by French officers like the Souchier and the Desombre models.
See also Houlliot's Nautical and Survey compasses and the equinoctial compasses (with sundial), the Modèle 1922 modified 1934.


 Samples of floating cards made of mother of pearl (with rose of winds in black and red paint) ordered by a German retailer  before WWI (dia.: 20mm) .

If not otherwise specified, all pictures by courtesy of Mr M. Collignon.

A part of Houlliot's production c. 1900:

Click on the pictures for enlarged views

The North mark is the hook-shaped part of a ship's anchor. At right: the printing plate for the Russsian version
(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Diameter: 45mm
- Depth: 17mm
- Weight: 67grs

This hunter type compass is the smallest version of a series of nautical compasses (see this category). The card division (four 90 degrees quadrants) was no longer in use when this item was manufactured (S-L catalogue 1932). 
Compass with paper dial and quandrants dial
(diam.: 2" / 50mm)

Compass with a luminous letter N painted on the magnet needle

Double hunter with transparent case
Click to see different configurations

(Pictures Ted Brink)

Compass with N & S letter shaped needle (compare with BILAND and NARDIN)

Box compass
(called Tabatière in French)

(see top row, centre - diam. 80 mm)

Box compass

Marching course arrow is made of luminous paper glued under the crystal (early 20th C).
Dia. 2" / 50mm

French WW1 marching compass called boussole directrice (link to the history of this compass type).
See similar compasses in MORIN.

Dia. 55mm

Pic. below, left: compass  with marching course arrow
Export version called Invincible in Russian catalogues for Russia (link to more items). Note the needle's C-shaped north end standing for the Russian word for north, CEBEP, pronounce 'sever'. Dia.: 46mm

Pic. below, right: Transit lock activated by rotating the serrated bezel (same syst. as the ones made for ZEISS, dia. 44 mm)

Version with transparent bottom
Divisions: 360°
- Cardinal points
- Hole in needle, north side
- Dia. available: 45 and 55 mm

Pic. courtesy F. Deramo
Technical Data
Dia. 44 mm
Divisions 400 grades
Note the figures engraved in italics. Compare to the later model made by Collignon after WWII.

Pictures courtesy G. Ferry
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British manufacturer. The firm was incorporated as Henry Hughes & Sons Ltd in 1903 and opened a production facility in Forest Gate (read the full story in Wikipedia "Kelvin Hughes / The Hughes connection").
Hughes also produced various marching and wrist compasses based on Creagh-Osborne's patent (see this name in these categories).

Picture courtesy D. Beving 
Click on the picture for an enlarged view

Technical Data
- Diameter: mm
- Depth: mm
- Singer design on mother of pearl
- Cardinals in red paint on crystal (compare with Fr. Barker's catalogue pictures of the models Pathfinder and Prospecting)

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- I -


US manufacturer, created in 1908 by two former employees of the instruments maker James W. QUEEN & Co. called Charles. F. Iszard and J. Henry Warren (surveying, engineering and scientific instruments). In 1913 it became the Warren-Knight Instrument Co. It was first located in Philadelphia 136 North 12th Street and moved to their current premises in 1963 (source: www.warrenind.com).
See also Survey & Artillery Compasses (Warren-Knight).

The company's logo on a 1908 catalogue

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data
- Diameter: 45 mm
- Depth: 15 mm
- Hunter case, bar needle with counterweight
- Production year: before 1913
Engraved inside the lid is the logo of Iszard-Warren's brand DU-NORTH compass
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Italian-made compass

PROFILE - go to C.E.V. The only visible marking is located on the push-button inside the loop. (see also the marching compass designed by Schlacht).
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- J -


Compasses made before WWII and written in the traditional way (Chinese language and divisions).
See also the Japanese (WWII) wrist compasses, DOXA, THALSON and compasses with GLASS bottom.

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
Technical Data (image at left)
- Dia.: 1½ " /  37mm
- Bar needle
- Made probably in the 1920s
- Silver-coated face
- Cardinals: For more details go to Religion / Chinese Tradition and Miscell. / Cardinal Points (China & Japan).

Image at right: compass made probably in the 1930s/40s.
Picture courtesy A. Jatsch

After WW2, the Japanese industry exported many small compasses in the whole world and many European and U.S. manufacturers had their instrument made in Japan. We have catalogues dating back to the early 1960's from a company called TOKYO COMPASS MFG. LTD. JAPAN which seems to have been taken over by the vast MITSUI & CO., LTD. located no. 2,1-CHOME SHIBATAMURA-CHO, MINATO-KU in Tokyo, Japan. Many famous designs like Taylor's and names like DOXA can be recognized.

Examples of catalogue pages

Cell 1 - Tokyo Compass (green)
Seven categories: auto compasses, marine compasses, engineer, camping equipment, pocket compasses, wrist compasses, assortment and display.

Cell 2 - Mitsui (blue)
Nine categories: (the same plus) lidded pocket compasses and pin-on compasses.

(Click on the pictures for enlarged views)
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- K -


U.S. manufacturer, New York (more information HERE). See also category Survey & Artillery Compasses.

Click on images for enlarged views
Technical Data
Dia: 50mm / 2 in.
In addition to the transit lock, the compass possesses a needle brake actuated by pushing downwards the side lever end. The rear sighting aid (pinhole) is not located inside the loop like on most compasses but outside, i.e. on top of it when erected.

K & E bought such compasses from F. Barker & Son. Marking on case bottom: MADE IN ENGLAND

The K&E catalogue for 1904 (see image at right) represents a compass with a flat crystal which was probably broken on our own instrument and replaced with a curvated one in which an additional small lense with the same curvature was glued to prevent the needle to fall off (view of parts before cleaning)

Click on images for enlarged views
Technical Data
Large and precise open face instrument

Dia: 75mm / 3 in.
Thickness: 15mm
Weight: 160gr
Precision: 2 deg.
Transit lock (missing on pic.) actuated via the knob in the loop

Picture of catalogue by courtesy of surveyantiques.com

Open face, black card. 1930's
(Picture courtesy puttyface6)

Hunter case, bar needle
Technical Data (Hunter Case)
- Diameter: 45mm
- Depth: 15mm
- Weight: 49gr
- Radium paint markings
- WWI until 1940s

(Click on the images for enlarged views)
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KHLYNOVSKI - Хлыновский

General-major Mikhail Ivanovich KHlynovski (Хлыновский Михаил Иванович, генерал-майор), 1859 - 1910, invented and patented this compass. It was produced by HOULLIOT in France and sold in Russia by A. LAUBE (A. Лаубе) located Sabalkansky Prospekt n°1 and later Sofiskaya n° 7 in St-Petersburg. The French manufacturer HOULLIOT supplied probably until the 1917 revolution numerous models to Russian retailers. We were extremely lucky and had access to the company's archives (books, clients addresses etc.) of the last owner and head of the company Collignon-Houlliot who also produced a box full of discarded flawed items (broken crystal, engraving error, loosened luminous arrow etc.). These boxes contained a typical quantity of 144 instruments (a so called "grosse" order, i.e. 12 x 12 articles). We could identify at least seven different models including a planchette (plane table) compass (click on link for pics.).
Portrait: picture courtesy "Иркутск и иркутяне. Город и его жители на фотографиях и открытках 1850-1920". Медведев, Сергей Иванович)
On some of them, the Russian words Registered Trademark are engraved abbreviated: ПРИВИЛ.(ЕГИЯ) ЗАЯВЛ.(ЕНА) above the designer's name M. KHlynovski (M. Хлыновский) and a double ruler of one inch length with 20 divisions on the upper side and 25 (millimeter) on the lower side. However, a similar compass is also known but signed V. OSSIETZKY together with the abbrev. охр. свип. (also meaning reg. TM but in the translation of the German Schutzmarke).

(Click on pictures for enlarged views)

Conversion scale on back:
Top: 1 inch (20 units)
Bottom:  25 mm
Technical Data
- Diameter: 2" / 50mm
- Divisions: none, only cardinals in black (small) and large cut-out giving the luminous paper.
Cardinals in Russian: see MISCELLANEOUS
- Luminous Balmain paper sheet under the dial
At right: Example of an imprinted sheet:
NOTE: On some items the French word DÉPOSÉ (reg. TM) ist engraved above the signature:

Version engraved PATENT (w/o no.) on back. We don't know any intact item but the lack of difference to other compasses is probably the reason no patent file was ever accepted. 

Fig. published in a 1907 manual (click on image for a view of cover an two pages)

There have been many different versions of the two models described in the list of approved materiels: for officers (at left) and for soldiers (at right).  Undelivered compasses still bear on the reverse labels in Russian (link to pic) correspondinmg to several companies of the 162 Infantry Regiment of Akhaltsykhski (Ахалцыхский 162-й пехотный полк).
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KRAUS / KPAYC in Russian

This compass maker's name appears (at top right) together with a drawing published in a catalogue in which three other models are depicted like the ones called after their designers Khlynovsky (see above) and Ossietzky and also the one made by Houlliot (see above) and called Invincible.

Technical Data
- Dia.:: 48 mm
- Double graduation: 360° clockwise and 6000 MILS (only three digits) counter clockwise
- Bottom: only two rulers of 1/20 (1 inch) and 1/25 mm
- The compass rose is fixed with 4 screws on the the case
- Illumination by means of Balmain paper.

Click on the image at left for a view of the full page
Foto forum.WW2.ru


Swiss clock manufacturers who built from the middle of the 19th c. on compasses into pocket watches and indicated the name of the resellors (jewellers). Here is a beautiful one made for "F. W. KREIS" jeweller in Berlin. The address "Berlin, W." doesn't refer to the partition of Berlin into sectors after WW II but to the former city district called 'West' located south of the prestigious Allee Unter den Linden.
F. W. Kreis imported also watches which were built into the cockpits of the first reconnaissance and combat aircraft during WW I (see Konrad Knirim 's website about antique military watches).

Design: compare with the Swiss made WRIST compass (see this category)

Technical Data
- Diameter: 40 mm
- Depth: 10 mm
- Weight: 30 g
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PROFILE - KRÖPLIN is a German company (more information HERE).

The objective of the patent which H. C. Kröplin applied for in 1925 was to make it possible to set a marching course on a compass without having to orientate a map on a table or even on a vertical wall map and to transfer this information onto the compass. The inventor designed for this purpose a card with a (red) pointer that could be taken out of the compass capsule. We know two versions of a simple cylindrical instrument matching the patent's description: the Armeekompaß* and the Marschkompaß.
* The German letter ß ressembling the Greek beta represents in fact 2 s written together, read thus Armeekompass.

NOTE: In our opinion, this invention was pure nonsense since the compass technology already was far more advanced in other systems like the Bézard type created over 20 years before, but the inventor apparently pursued his idée fixe during many years.
- The model Marschkompass was apparently built in a certain quantity since a price is indicated in the original box.
- The model Armeekompass displayed below was probably only a demonstration prototype since it features no luminous markings. The model and manufacturer's names and other patent and design information are anyhow superfluous in a military equipment.

The original celluloid disk with the marching course pointer

The model Marschkompaß assembled

Click on the images for enlarged views
The price printed inside the box:
M[ark] 7,70

Technical Data
- Diameter: 60mm
- Depth: 20mm
- Weight: 120gr
- Transit lock: excenter in the fitting of the ring
- Protection cap for the card's tab (Armeekompaß only)
- Luminous markings (Marschkompaß only)
- Fixed declination marker

The model Armeekompaß assembled

The graduated removable card was made by Kröplin according to our directives on the base of existing ones (compare with the KRÖPLIN ORION square models).
Pictures courtesy Jaypee
Priv. coll. of the KRÖPLIN company
(click on the picture for page 3, fig.)

(English issue also available,
go to the SHOP for ordering information)

Below: A series model with two covers. The top one protects the compass crystal, the rear one gives way to the insert disk.

View of dial with insert in place

Marking on top cover:

This model was also signed by ASKANIA.

Click on images for enlarged views

Technical Data
- Dia.: 55mm
- Overall length: 86 mm
- Thickness: 18 mm
- Weight: 125 g
- Transit lock: lever actuated when closing the top cover
- Adaption of magnetic declination via an adjustable device on rear face (2 screws, s. pic. at left).

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